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Modelling the cost-effectiveness of a rapid diagnostic test (IgMFA) for uncomplicated typhoid fever in Cambodia.

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Saito, Mari Kajiwara, Parry, Christopher and Yeung, Shunmay (2018) 'Modelling the cost-effectiveness of a rapid diagnostic test (IgMFA) for uncomplicated typhoid fever in Cambodia.'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 12, Issue 11, e0006961.

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Abstract

Typhoid fever is a common cause of fever in Cambodian children but diagnosis and treatment are usually presumptive owing to the lack of quick and accurate tests at an initial consultation. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for typhoid fever diagnosis, an immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA), in a remote health centre setting in Cambodia from a healthcare provider perspective. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) with decision analytic modelling was conducted. We constructed a decision tree model comparing the IgMFA versus clinical diagnosis in a hypothetical cohort with 1000 children in each arm. The costs included direct medical costs only. The eligibility was children (≤14 years old) with fever. Time horizon was day seven from the initial consultation. The number of treatment success in typhoid fever cases was the primary health outcome. The number of correctly diagnosed typhoid fever cases (true-positives) was the intermediate health outcome. We obtained the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as the difference in costs divided by the difference in the number of treatment success between the two arms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. The IgMFA detected 5.87 more true-positives than the clinical diagnosis (38.45 versus 32.59) per 1000 children and there were 3.61 more treatment successes (46.78 versus 43.17). The incremental cost of the IgMFA was estimated at $5700; therefore, the ICER to have one additional treatment success was estimated to be $1579. The key drivers for the ICER were the relative sensitivity of IgMFA versus clinical diagnosis, the cost of IgMFA, and the prevalence of typhoid fever or multi-drug resistant strains. The IgMFA was more costly but more effective than the clinical diagnosis in the base-case analysis. An IgMFA could be more cost-effective than the base-case if the sensitivity of IgMFA was higher or cost lower. Decision makers may use a willingness-to-pay threshold that considers the additional cost of hospitalisation for treatment failures.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 243 Diagnositic services
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Infection. Bacterial Infections > Enteric Infections > WC 270 Typhoid fever
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006961
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2018 13:11
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2018 13:11
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/9697

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