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HIV infection compounds the lymphopenia associated with cerebral malaria in Malawian children.

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Mandala, Wilson L, Gondwe, Esther N, Nyirenda, Tonney S, Drayson, Mark, Molyneux, Malcolm and MacLennan, Calman A (2018) 'HIV infection compounds the lymphopenia associated with cerebral malaria in Malawian children.'. Journal of Blood Medicine, Vol 10, pp. 9-18.

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Abstract

Aim
Cerebral malaria (CM), unlike severe malarial anemia (SMA), has previously been characterized by pan-lymphopenia that normalizes in convalescence, while HIV infection is associated with depletion of CD4 T cells. In this study, we investigate whether HIV infection in Malawian children exacerbates the pan-lymphopenia associated with CM.
Methods
We investigated the absolute and percentage lymphocyte-subset counts and their activation and memory status in Malawian children presenting with either CM who were HIV-uninfected (n=29), HIV-infected (n=9), or SMA who were HIV-uninfected (n=30) and HIV-infected (n=5) in comparison with HIV-uninfected children without malaria (n=42) and HIV-infected children without malaria (n=4).
Results
HIV-infected CM cases had significantly lower absolute counts of T cells (=0.006), CD4 T cells (=0.0008), and B cells (=0.0014) than HIV-uninfected CM cases, and significantly lower percentages of CD4 T cells than HIV-uninfected CM cases (=0.005). HIV-infected SMA cases had significantly lower percentages of CD4 T cells (=0.001) and higher CD8 T cells (=0.003) in comparison with HIV-uninfected SMA cases. HIV-infected SMA cases had higher proportions of activated T cells (=0.003) expressing CD69 than HIV-uninfected SMA cases.
Conclusion
HIV infection compounds the perturbation of acute CM and SMA on lymphocytes, exacerbating subset-specific lymphopenia in CM and increasing activation status in SMA, potentially exacerbating host immunocompromise.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 320 Child Welfare. Child Health Services.
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV infections
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503.5 Complications
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WH Hemic and Lymphatic Systems > Hematologic Diseases. Immunologic Factors. Blood Banks > WH 200 Leukocytes. Leukocyte disorders (General)
WS Pediatrics > WS 100 General works
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S187081
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2019 11:51
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2019 10:35
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/9942

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