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Social and health factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes among people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Sierra Leone: a national, retrospective cohort study.

Kamara, Rashidatu Fouad, Saunders, Matthew J, Sahr, Foday, Losa-Garcia, Juan E, Foray, Lynda, Davies, Geraint and Wingfield, Tom ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8433-6887 (2022) 'Social and health factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes among people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Sierra Leone: a national, retrospective cohort study.'. Lancet Global Health, Vol 10, Issue 4, e543-e554.

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Abstract

Background

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global health emergency. We aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes among people with MDR-TB in Sierra Leone and investigate social and health factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes.

Methods

This national, retrospective cohort study recruited all people notified with MDR-TB to the Sierra Leone National TB Programme, admitted to Lakka hospital (Lakka, Western Area Rural District, Freetown, Sierra Leone) between April, 2017, and September, 2019. Participants were followed up to May, 2021. People who were eligible but had no social or health data available, or were subsequently found to have been misdiagnosed, were excluded from participation. MDR-TB treatment was with the 2017 WHO-recommended short (9–11 month) or long (18–24 month) aminoglycoside-containing regimens. Multivariable logistic regression models examined associations of programmatic social and health data with WHO-defined adverse treatment outcomes (death, treatment failure, loss to follow-up).

Findings

Of 370 notified MDR-TB cases, 365 (99%) were eligible for study participation (five participants were excluded due to lack of social or health data or misdiagnosis). Treatment was started by 341 (93%) of 365 participants (317 received the short regimen, 24 received the long regimen, and 24 received no treatment). Median age was 35 years (IQR 26–45), 263 (72%) of 365 were male and 102 (28%) were female, 71 (19%) were HIV-positive, and 127 (35%) were severely underweight (body-mass index <16·5 kg/m2). Overall, 267 (73%) of 365 participants had treatment success, 95 (26%) had an adverse outcome, and three (1%) were still on treatment in May, 2021. Age 45–64 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·4, 95% CI 1·2–5·0), severe underweight (aOR 4·2, 1·9–9·3), untreated HIV (aOR 10, 2·6–40·0), chronic lung disease (aOR 2·0, 1·0–4·2), previously unsuccessful drug-sensitive tuberculosis retreatment (aOR 4·3, 1·0–19), and a long regimen (aOR 6·5, 2·3–18·0) were associated with adverse outcomes. A sensitivity analysis showed that prothionamide resistance (aOR 3·1, 95% CI 1·5–10·0) and aminoglycoside-related complete deafness (aOR 6·6, 1·3–35) were independently associated with adverse outcomes.

Interpretation

MDR-TB treatment success in Sierra Leone approached WHO targets and the short regimen was associated with higher success. The social and health factors associated with adverse outcomes in this study suggest a role for integrated tuberculosis, HIV, and non-communicable disease services alongside nutritional and socioeconomic support for people with MDR-TB and emphasise the urgent need to scale up coverage of all-oral aminoglycoside-sparing regimens.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > QW 45 Microbial drug resistance. General or not elsewhere classified.
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 205 Epidemiology
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00004-3
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2022 12:42
Last Modified: 16 Aug 2022 12:42
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/20207

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