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Reduction of NETosis by targeting CXCR1/2 reduces thrombosis, lung injury, and mortality in experimental human and murine sepsis

Alsabani, Mohmad, Abrams, Simon T., Cheng, Zhenxing, Morton, Ben ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6164-2854, Lane, Steven, Alosaimi, Samar, Yu, Weiping, Wang, Guozheng and Toh, Cheng-Hock (2022) 'Reduction of NETosis by targeting CXCR1/2 reduces thrombosis, lung injury, and mortality in experimental human and murine sepsis'. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol 128, Issue 2, pp. 283-293.

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Abstract

Background

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) facilitate bacterial clearance but also promote thrombosis and organ injury in sepsis. We quantified ex vivo NET induction in septic humans and murine models of sepsis to identify signalling pathways that may be modulated to improve outcome in human sepsis.

Methods

NET formation in human donor neutrophils was quantified after incubation with plasma obtained from patients with sepsis or systemic inflammation (double-blinded assessment of extracellular DNA using immunofluorescence microscopy). NET formation (% neutrophils forming NETs) was correlated with plasma cytokine levels (MultiPlex assay). Experimental sepsis (caecal ligation and puncture or intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli) was assessed in C57/BL6 male mice. The effect of pharmacological inhibition of CXCR1/2 signalling (reparixin) on NET formation, organ injury (hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers), and survival in septic mice was examined.

Results

NET formation was higher after incubation with plasma from septic patients (median NETs=25% [10.5–46.5%]), compared with plasma obtained from patients with systemic inflammation (14% [4.0–23.3%]; P=0.02). Similar results were observed after incubation of plasma from mice with neutrophils from septic non-septic mice. Circulating CXCR1/2 ligands correlated with NETosis in patients (interleukin-8; r=0.643) and mice (macrophage inflammatory protein-2; r=0.902). In experimental sepsis, NETs were primarily observed in the lungs, correlating with fibrin deposition (r=0.702) and lung injury (r=0.692). Inhibition of CXCR1/2 using reparixin in septic mice reduced NET formation, multi-organ injury, and mortality, without impairing bacterial clearance.

Conclusion

CXCR1/2 signalling-induced NET formation is a therapeutic target in sepsis, which may be guided by ex vivo NET assays.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WC Communicable Diseases > Infection. Bacterial Infections > Bacterial Infections > WC 240 Bacteremia. Sepsis. Toxemias
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.10.039
Depositing User: Lynn Roberts-Maloney
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2022 12:51
Last Modified: 19 Jul 2022 10:45
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/20711

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