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East Africa International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research: Summary of Key Research Findings

Nankabirwa, Joaniter I., Rek, John, Arinaitwe, Emmanuel, Namuganga, Jane Frances, Nsobya, Sam L., Asua, Victor, Mawejje, Henry D., Epstein, Adrienne, Greenhouse, Bryan, Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel, Briggs, Jessica, Krezanoski, Paul J., Rosenthal, Philip J., Conrad, Melissa, Smith, David, Staedke, Sarah G., Drakeley, Chris, Bousema, Teun, Andolina, Chiara, Donnelly, Martin ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5218-1497, Kamya, Moses R. and Dorsey, Grant (2022) 'East Africa International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research: Summary of Key Research Findings'. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 107, Issue 4_Suppl, pp. 21-32.

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Abstract

The Program for Resistance, Immunology, Surveillance, and Modeling of Malaria (PRISM) has been conducting malaria research in Uganda since 2010 to improve the understanding of the disease and measure the impact of population-level control interventions in the country. Here, we will summarize key research findings from a series of studies addressing routine health facility-based surveillance, comprehensive cohort studies, studies of the molecular epidemiology, and transmission of malaria, evaluation of antimalarial drug efficacy, and resistance across the country, and assessments of insecticide resistance. Among our key findings are the following. First, we found that in historically high transmission areas of Uganda, a combination of universal distribution of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides lowered the malaria burden greatly, but marked resurgences occurred if IRS was discontinued. Second, submicroscopic infections are common and key drivers of malaria transmission, especially in school-age children (5–15 years). Third, markers of drug resistance have changed over time, with new concerning emergence of markers predicting resistance to artemisinin antimalarials. Fourth, insecticide resistance monitoring has demonstrated high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, appreciable impact of the synergist piperonyl butoxide to pyrethroid susceptibility, emerging resistance to carbamates, and complete susceptibility of malaria vectors to organophosphates, which could have important implications for vector control interventions. Overall, PRISM has yielded a wealth of information informing researchers and policy-makers on the malaria burden and opportunities for improved malaria control and eventual elimination in Uganda. Continued studies concerning all the types of surveillance discussed above are ongoing.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WC Communicable Diseases > WC 20 Research (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 680 Tropical diseases (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-1285
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 17 Nov 2022 15:42
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2022 15:42
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/21348

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