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Escalating pyrethroid resistance in two major malaria vectors Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Atatam, Southern Ghana

Mugenzi, Leon M. J., Akosah-Brempong, Gabriel, Tchouakui, Magellan, Menze, Benjamin D., Tekoh, Theofelix A., Tchoupo, Micareme, Nkemngo, Francis N., Wondji, Murielle, Nwaefuna, Ekene K., Osae, Michael and Wondji, Charles ORCID: (2022) 'Escalating pyrethroid resistance in two major malaria vectors Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Atatam, Southern Ghana'. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol 22, Issue 1, e799.

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Background: Aggravation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is threatening the efforts to control malaria by reducing the efficacy of insecticide-based interventions hence needs to be closely monitored. This study investigated the intensity of insecticide resistance of two major malaria vectors An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) collected in southern Ghana and assessed the bio-efficacy of several long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against these mosquito populations.

Methods: The insecticide susceptibility profiles of Anopheles funestus s.s. and Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Obuasi region (Atatam), southern Ghana were characterized and the bio-efficacy of some LLINs was assessed to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of these tools. Furthermore, molecular markers associated with insecticide resistance in both species were characterized in the F0 and F1 populations using PCR and qPCR methods.

Results: Anopheles funestus s.s. was the predominant species and was resistant to pyrethroids, organochlorine and carbamate insecticides, but fully susceptible to organophosphates. An. gambiae s.l. was resistant to all four insecticide classes. High intensity of resistance to 5 × and 10 × the discriminating concentration (DC) of pyrethroids was observed in both species inducing a considerable loss of efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Temporal expression analysis revealed a massive 12-fold increase in expression of the CYP6P4a cytochrome P450 gene in An. funestus s.s., initially from a fold change of 41 (2014) to 500 (2021). For both species, the expression of candidate genes did not vary according to discriminating doses. An. gambiae s.l. exhibited high frequencies of target-site resistance including Vgsc-1014F (90%) and Ace-1 (50%) while these mutations were absent in An. funestus s.s.

Conclusions: The multiple and high intensity of resistance observed in both malaria vectors highlights the need to implement resistance management strategies and the introduction of new insecticide chemistries.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 17 Nov 2022 14:22
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2022 14:22


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