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Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children

Koshy, Gibby, Delpisheh, Ali and Brabin, Bernard (2011) 'Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children'. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, Vol 3, Issue 1, pp. 21-28.

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ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental questionnaire. A total of 1,074 schoolchildren aged 5–11 years were enrolled from 15 primary schools in a lower socio-economic area of Merseyside. ADHD was defined by the question “does your child have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD), which has been diagnosed by a doctor?” The prevalence estimates for childhood obesity, maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood ADHD were 14.9% (116/777), 28.0% (269/955), and 3.4% (32/945), respectively. ADHD prevalence increased fivefold in children with obesity (RR, 4.80, 95% CI 2.2–10.4, P < 0.001) and more than twofold in children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (RR, 2.44, 95% CI 1.2–4.9, P = 0.02). Regression analysis adjusting for obesity, overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, heavy maternal smoking, household member smoking during pregnancy, doctor-diagnosed asthma, preterm birth, and low birthweight showed significant independent associations of ADHD prevalence with obesity (AOR, 4.66, 95% CI 1.57–13.89, P = 0.006) and pregnancy smoking (AOR, 3.19, 95% CI 1.08–9.49, P = 0.04). There was a positive dose–response association of ADHD with the number of maternal cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Measures to reduce both smoking among pregnant women and childhood obesity might reduce prevalence of childhood ADHD.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Autonomic Agents. Nonmetallic Elements. Neuromuscular Agents > QV 137 Nicotine
WQ Obstetrics > Pregnancy > WQ 200 General works
WS Pediatrics > WS 100 General works
WS Pediatrics > Child Care. Nutrition. Physical Examination > WS 115 Nutritional requirements. Nutrition disorders
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Child & Reproductive Health Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Lynn Roberts-Maloney
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2014 13:30
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:06


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