LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

Badolo, Athanase, Traore, Alphonse, Jones, Christopher ORCID:, Sanou, Antoine, Flood, Lori, Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M, Ranson, Hilary ORCID: and Sagnon, N’Fale (2012) 'Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?'. Malaria Journal, Vol 11, e232.

Malaria_J_11_232.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB)


Background and methods

A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined.


At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003) and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12%) were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year.


Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and between rounds of testing, and hence it is important that resistance monitoring is carried out on more than one occasion before decisions on insecticide procurement for vector control are made. The presence of 1014S in An. gambiae s.l., in addition to 1014F, is not unexpected given the recent report of 1014S in Benin but highlights the importance of monitoring for both mutations throughout the continent. Future research must now focus on the impact that this resistance is having on malaria control in Burkina Faso.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Vector Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Lynn Roberts-Maloney
Date Deposited: 11 Dec 2014 12:00
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2022 11:09


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item