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Micro-encapsulated pirimiphos-methyl shows high insecticidal efficacy and long residual activity against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in central Côte d’Ivoire

Tchicaya, Emile S, Nsanzabana, Christian, Smith, Thomas A, Donzé, Jennifer, de Hipsl, Maiti, Tano, Yao, Müller, Pie, Briët, Olivier JT, Utzinger, Jürg and Koudou, Benjamin (2014) 'Micro-encapsulated pirimiphos-methyl shows high insecticidal efficacy and long residual activity against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in central Côte d’Ivoire'. Malaria Journal, Vol 13, e332.

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The wide-scale implementation of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has contributed to a considerable decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade. Due to increasing resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes to dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids, alternative insecticide formulations for IRS with long-lasting residual activity are required to sustain the gains obtained in most malaria-endemic countries.


Three experimental capsule suspension (CS) formulations of the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl were evaluated together with Actellic 50 EC, an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) of pirimiphos-methyl, and the pyrethroid ICON 10 CS, a lambda-cyhalothrin CS formulation, in an experimental hut trial. The formulations were tested on two types of surfaces: mud and cement. The study with a 12-month follow-up was carried out in Bouaké, central Côte d’Ivoire, where An. gambiae mosquitoes show high levels of resistance against pyrethroids, DDT and carbamates. Residual activity was also tested in cone bioassays with the susceptible An. gambiae KISUMU strain.


One of the CS formulations of pirimiphos-methyl, CS BM, outperformed all other formulations tested. On cement surfaces, the odds ratios of overall insecticidal effect on An. gambiae s.l. of pirimiphos-methyl CS BM compared to Actellic 50 EC were 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–1.7) for the first three months, 5.6 (95% CI: 4.4–7.2) for the second three months, and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.0–4.4) for the last six months of follow-up. On mud surfaces, the respective odds ratios were 2.5 (95% CI: 1.9–3.3), 3.5 (95% CI: 2.7–4.5), and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.4–2.2). On cement, the residual activity of pirimiphos-methyl CS BM measured using cone tests was similar to that of lambda-cyhalothrin and for both treatments, mortality of susceptible Kisumu laboratory strain was not significantly below the World Health Organization pre-set threshold of 80% for 30 weeks after spraying. Residual activity was shorter on mud surfaces, mortality falling below 80% on both pirimiphos-methyl CS BM and lambda-cyhalothrin treated surfaces at 25 weeks post-treatment.


CS formulations of pirimiphos-methyl are promising alternatives for IRS, as they demonstrate prolonged insecticidal effect and residual activity against malaria mosquitoes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Lynn Roberts-Maloney
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2015 14:45
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:09


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