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Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: Evidence from the 2D : 4D finger length ratio

Rizwan, S., Manning, J. T. and Brabin, Bernard (2007) 'Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: Evidence from the 2D : 4D finger length ratio'. Early Human Development, Vol 83, Issue 2, pp. 87-90.

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Objectives: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to high fetal testosterone (FT), and an increased risk in offspring for autism, ADHD, conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour and criminal outcomes. The ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D) is thought to be negatively related to FT concentration, and is related to autism, hyperactivity, poor social behaviour, and physical aggression. We compare the 2D:4D ratio of children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy with the 2D:4D of children whose mother did not smoke.
Method: Cross-sectional survey in two primary schools. Questionnaires were distributed to 710 children and 546 were returned. Of these the 2nd and 4th digits of 520 children (259 females and 261 mates) were measured.
The main outcome measures were 2nd and 4th digit length, smoking history of mother and father.
Results: Boys had lower mean 2DAD than girls and right 2D:4D was lower than left. Among boys, those whose mother's smoked during pregnancy had tower right hand 2D:4D ratio than those whose mother did not smoke. The difference remained significant after the effects of age, height, weight and birth weight were removed. Other household smoking patterns were not associated with mate offspring 2D:4D. Female offspring 2D:4D did not differ on the basis of maternal smoking. Conclusions: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with tow right 2D:4D in children, but the effect was restricted to boys. A link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and 2D:4D supports a causal association between FT and such behaviours as hyperactivity and conduct disorder. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: smoking pregnancy testosterone 2d : 4dl finger length congenital adrenal-hyperplasia 4th digit length 2nd women androgen children sex associations prevalence dimorphism
Subjects: WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 310 Maternal welfare
WQ Obstetrics > Pregnancy Complications > WQ 240 Pregnancy complications (General)
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Child & Reproductive Health Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Ms Julia Martin
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2011 16:48
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:01


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