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A cohort study to identify risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkinabe children: implications for other high burden high impact countries

Yaro, Jean Baptiste, Ouedraogo, Alphonse, Ouedraogo, Z. Amidou, Diarra, Amidou, Lankouande, Malik, Agboraw, Efundem, Worrall, Eve ORCID:, Toe, Kobié Hyacinthe, Sanou, Antoine, Guelbeogo, W. Moussa, Sagnon, N’Fale, Ranson, Hilary ORCID:, Tiono, Alfred B., Lindsay, Steven and Wilson, Anne ORCID: (2020) 'A cohort study to identify risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkinabe children: implications for other high burden high impact countries'. Malaria Journal, Vol 19, Issue 1, e371.

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Progress in controlling malaria has stalled in recent years. Today the malaria burden is increasingly concentrated in a few countries, including Burkina Faso, where malaria is not declining. A cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for malaria infection in children in southwest Burkina Faso, an area with high insecticide-treated net (ITN) coverage and insecticide-resistant vectors.

Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection was measured in 252 children aged 5 to 15 years, using active and passive detection, during the 2017 transmission season, following clearance of infection. Demographic, socio-economic, environmental, and entomological risk factors, including use of ITNs and insecticide resistance were monitored.

During the six-month follow-up period, the overall incidence of P. falciparum infection was 2.78 episodes per child (95% CI = 2.66–2.91) by microscopy, and 3.11 (95% CI = 2.95–3.28) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 80.4 infective bites per child over the six-month malaria transmission season. At baseline, 80.6% of children were reported as sleeping under an ITN the previous night, although at the last survey, 23.3% of nets were in poor condition and considered no longer protective. No association was found between the rate of P. falciparum infection and either EIR (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.00, 95% CI: 1.00–1.00, p = 0.08) or mortality in WHO tube tests when vectors were exposed to 0.05% deltamethrin (IRR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.73–1.50, p = 0.79). Travel history (IRR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.45–1.59, p < 0.001) and higher socio-economic status were associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum infection (IRR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00–1.11, p = 0.04).

Incidence of P. falciparum infection remains overwhelmingly high in the study area. The study findings suggest that because of the exceptionally high levels of malaria transmission in the study area, malaria elimination cannot be achieved solely by mass deployment of ITNs and additional control measures are needed.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WS Pediatrics > WS 100 General works
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 22 Oct 2020 11:36
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2020 11:15


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