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Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis and Functional Validation Linked a Cluster of Epsilon Glutathione S-Transferases with Insecticide Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus across Africa

Kouamo, Mersimine, Ibrahim, SulaimanSadi, Hearn, Jack ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3358-4949, Riveron, Jacob ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5395-767X, Kusimo, Michael, Tchouakui, Magellan, Ebai, Terence, Tchapga, Williams, Wondji, Murielle, Irving, Helen, Boudjeko, Thaddée, Boyom, Fabrice F. and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2021) 'Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis and Functional Validation Linked a Cluster of Epsilon Glutathione S-Transferases with Insecticide Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus across Africa'. Genes, Vol 12, Issue 4, p. 561.

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Abstract

Resistance is threatening the effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions in use for malaria control. Pinpointing genes associated with resistance is crucial for evidence-based resistance management targeting the major malaria vectors. Here, a combination of RNA-seq based genome-wide transcriptional analysis and RNA-silencing in vivo functional validation were used to identify key insecticide resistance genes associated with DDT and DDT/permethrin cross-resistance across Africa. A cluster of glutathione-S-transferase from epsilon group were found to be overexpressed in resistant populations of Anopheles funestus across Africa including GSTe1 [Cameroon (fold change, FC: 2.54), Ghana (4.20), Malawi (2.51)], GSTe2 [Cameroon (4.47), Ghana (7.52), Malawi (2.13)], GSTe3 [Cameroon (2.49), Uganda (2.60)], GSTe4 in Ghana (3.47), GSTe5 [Ghana (2.94), Malawi (2.26)], GSTe6 [Cameroun (3.0), Ghana (3.11), Malawi (3.07), Uganda (3.78)] and GSTe7 (2.39) in Ghana. Validation of GSTe genes expression profiles by qPCR confirmed that the genes are differentially expressed across Africa with a greater overexpression in DDT-resistant mosquitoes. RNAi-based knock-down analyses supported that five GSTe genes are playing a major role in resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) and DDT in An. funestus, with a significant recovery of susceptibility observed when GSTe2, 3, 4, 5 and GSTe6 were silenced. These findings established that GSTe3, 4, 5 and 6 contribute to DDT resistance and should be further characterized to identify their specific genetic variants, to help design DNA-based diagnostic assays, as previously done for the 119F-GSTe2 mutation. This study highlights the role of GSTes in the development of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors and calls for actions to mitigate this resistance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12040561
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 13 May 2021 15:53
Last Modified: 13 May 2021 15:53
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/17828

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