LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

Environmental Factors Associated With Loa loa Microfilaria Prevalence and Intensity in Diverse Bioecological Zones of Cameroon

Badia, Xavier, Betts, Hannah, Wanji, Samuel, Molyneux, David ORCID:, Taylor, Mark ORCID: and Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: (2021) 'Environmental Factors Associated With Loa loa Microfilaria Prevalence and Intensity in Diverse Bioecological Zones of Cameroon'. Frontiers in Tropical Diseases, Vol 2, p. 668641.

fitd-02-668641 Louise Kelly Hope.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB) | Preview


Loiasis (African Eye Worm) is a filarial infection caused by Loa loa and transmitted by Chrysops vectors, which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Loiasis is a major impediment to control and elimination programmes that use the drug ivermectin due to the risk of serious adverse events. There is an urgent need to better refine and map high-risk communities. This study aimed to quantify and predict environmental factors associated with loiasis across five bioecological zones in Cameroon. The L. loa microfilaria (mf) prevalence (%) and intensity (mf number/ml) data from 42 villages within an Equatorial Rainforest and Savannah region were examined in relation to climate, topographic and forest-related data derived from satellite remote sensing sources. Differences between zones and regions were examined using nonparametric tests, and the relationship between L. loa mf prevalence, mf intensity, and the environmental factors using polynomial regression models. Overall, the L. loa mf prevalence was 11.6%, L. loa intensity 927.4 mf/ml, mean annual temperature 23.7°C, annual precipitation 2143.2 mm, elevation 790 m, tree canopy cover 46.7%, and canopy height 19.3m. Significant differences between the Equatorial Rainforest and Savannah region were found. Within the Equatorial Rainforest region, no significant differences were found. However, within the Savannah region, significant differences between the three bioecological zones were found, and the regression models indicated that tree canopy cover and elevation were significant predictors, explaining 85.1% of the L. loa mf prevalence (adjusted R2 = 0.851; p<0.001) and tree cover alone was significant, explaining 58.1% of the mf intensity (adjusted R2 = 0.581; p<0.001). The study highlights that environmental analysis can help delineate risk at different geographical scales, which may be practical for developing larger scale operational plans for mapping and implementing safe effective interventions.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 203 Nematoda
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Marie Hatton
Date Deposited: 20 May 2021 10:17
Last Modified: 20 May 2021 10:17


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item