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The Search for Natural and Synthetic Inhibitors That Would Complement Antivenoms as Therapeutics for Snakebite Envenoming

Gutiérrez, José María, Albulescu, Laura-Oana ORCID:, Clare, Rachel ORCID:, Casewell, Nicholas ORCID:, Abd El-Aziz, Tarek Mohamed, Escalante, Teresa and Rucavado, Alexandra (2021) 'The Search for Natural and Synthetic Inhibitors That Would Complement Antivenoms as Therapeutics for Snakebite Envenoming'. Toxins, Vol 13, Issue 7, p. 451.

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A global strategy, under the coordination of the World Health Organization, is being unfolded to reduce the impact of snakebite envenoming. One of the pillars of this strategy is to ensure safe and effective treatments. The mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming is the administration of animal-derived antivenoms. In addition, new therapeutic options are being explored, including recombinant antibodies and natural and synthetic toxin inhibitors. In this review, snake venom toxins are classified in terms of their abundance and toxicity, and priority actions are being proposed in the search for snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), three-finger toxin (3FTx), and serine proteinase (SVSP) inhibitors. Natural inhibitors include compounds isolated from plants, animal sera, and mast cells, whereas synthetic inhibitors comprise a wide range of molecules of a variable chemical nature. Some of the most promising inhibitors, especially SVMP and PLA2 inhibitors, have been developed for other diseases and are being repurposed for snakebite envenoming. In addition, the search for drugs aimed at control-ling endogenous processes generated in the course of envenoming is being pursued. The present review summarizes some of the most promising developments in this field and discusses issues that need to be considered for the effective translation of this knowledge to improve therapies for tackling snakebite envenoming.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Some of the studies described in this review correspond to studies supported by Vicerrectoría de Investigación, University of Costa Rica
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 630 Toxins. Antitoxins
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immunotherapy and Hypersensitivity > QW 805 Vaccines. Antitoxins. Toxoids
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Animal Poisons > WD 410 Reptiles
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Cathy Waldron
Date Deposited: 19 Aug 2021 10:54
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2021 10:54


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