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Assessing Anopheles vector species diversity and transmission of malaria in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire

Yokoly, Firmain N., Zahouli, Julien B. Z., Small, Graham, Ouattara, Allassane F., Opoku, Millicent, de Souza, Dziedzom K. and Koudou, Benjamin (2021) 'Assessing Anopheles vector species diversity and transmission of malaria in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire'. Malaria Journal, Vol 20, Issue 1.

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Although malaria and Anopheles mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in Côte d’Ivoire, limited data are available to help understand the malaria vector density and transmission dynamics in areas bordering the country. To address this gap, the Anopheles mosquito species diversity, the members of the Anopheles gambiae complex and the transmission of malaria were assessed in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire.

From July 2016 through December 2016 and July 2017 through December 2017, adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in four health districts of Côte d’Ivoire (Aboisso, Bloléquin, Odienné and Ouangolodougou) using standardized window exit trap (WET) and pyrethrum knockdown spray collection (PSC) methods. The collected mosquitoes were identified morphologically at species level and the members of the An. gambiae complex were separated using short interspersed nuclear element-based polymerase chain reaction (SINE-PCR). Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles funestus s.l. and Anopheles nili specimens were analysed for malaria Plasmodium parasite detection using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COX-I), and malaria prevalence among human population through local Ministry of Health (MoH) statistical yearbooks.

A total of 281 female Anopheles were collected in Aboisso, 754 in Bloléquin, 1319 in Odienné and 2443 in Ouangolodougou. Seven Anopheles species were recorded including An. gambiae s.l. (94.8–99.1%) as the main vector, followed by An. funestus s.l. (0.4–4.3%) and An. nili (0–0.7%). Among An. gambiae s.l., Anopheles coluzzii represented the predominant species in Aboisso (89.2%) and Bloléquin (92.2%), while An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) was the major species in Odienné (96.0%) and Ouangolodougou (94.2%). The Plasmodium sporozoite infection rate in An. gambiae s.l. was highest in Odienné (11.0%; n = 100) followed by Bloléquin (7.8%, n = 115), Aboisso (3.1%; n = 65) and Ouangologoudou (2.5%; n = 120). In An. funestus s.l., Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rate was estimated at 6.2% (n = 32) in Bloléquin, 8.7% (n = 23) in Odienné. No An. funestus s.l. specimens were found infected with P. falciparum sporozoite infection in Ouangolodougou and Aboisso. No P. falciparum sporozoite was detected in An. nili specimens in the four health districts. Among the local human populations, malaria incidence was higher in Odienné (39.7%; n = 45,376) and Bloléquin (37.6%; n = 150,205) compared to that in Ouangolodougou (18.3%; n = 131,629) and Aboisso (19.7%; n = 364,585).

Anopheles vector species diversity, abundance and Plasmodium sporozoite infection were high within the health districts along the borders of the country of Côte d’Ivoire, resulting in high malaria transmission among the local populations. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus s.l. were found to be highly infected with Plasmodium in the health districts of Bloléquin and Odienné where higher malaria incidence was observed than the other districts. This study provides important information that can be used to guide Côte d’Ivoire National Malaria Control Programme for vector control decision-making, mainly in districts that are at the country borders.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 4 General works
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 755 Epidemiology
Faculty: Department: IVCC
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2021 12:24
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2021 12:24


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