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Spatiotemporal distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka

Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID:, Yapabandara, A. M. G. M., Wickramasinghe, M. B., Perera, M. D. B., Karunaratne, S. H. P. P., Fernando, W. P., Abeyasinghe, R. R., Siyambalagoda, R. R. M. L. R., Herath, P. R. J., Galappaththy, G. N. L. and Hemingway, Janet ORCID: (2005) 'Spatiotemporal distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka'. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 99, Issue 10, pp. 751-761.

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The malaria situation in Sri Lanka worsened during the 1990s with the emergence and spread of resistance to the drugs and insecticides used for control. Chloroquine resistance has increased rapidly over this period, but adverse changes in malaria transmission are more closely associated with insecticide use rather than drug resistance. Insecticide susceptibility tests were routinely carried out in key anopheline vectors across the country for more than a decade. These sentinel data were combined with data collected by other research programmes and used to map the spatial and temporal trends of insecticide resistance in the main vectors, Anopheles culicifacies and A. subpictus, and to examine the relationship between insecticide resistance, changes in national spraying regimens and malaria prevalence. Both species had widespread resistance to malathion, the insecticide of choice in the early 1990s. Both species were initially susceptible to the organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides used operationally from 1993, but some resistance has now been selected. The levels of malathion and fenitrothion resistance in A. subpictus were higher in some ecological regions than others, which may be related to the distribution of sibling species, agricultural, pesticide exposure and/or environmental factors. The study highlights that the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is a constant threat and that active surveillance systems are vital in identifying key vectors and evidence of resistance. (c) 2005 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: malaria anopheles culicifacies anopheles subpictus insecticide resistance sri lanka geographical information systems vector mosquito-control scale field trial malaria transmission mahaweli project irrigation development management strategies malathion resistance grassi diptera risk-factors gambiae s.s
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immune Responses > QW 700 Infection. Mechanisms of infection and resistance.
QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Vector Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Sarah Lewis-Newton
Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2011 10:21
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2019 10:55


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