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Muscle strength and prediabetes progression and regression in middle‐aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

Qiu, Shanhu, Cai, Xue, Yuan, Yang, Xie, Bo, Sun, Zilin, Wang, Duolao ORCID: and Wu, Tongzhi (2022) 'Muscle strength and prediabetes progression and regression in middle‐aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study'. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, Vol 13, Issue 2, pp. 909-918.

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Background: Prediabetes progression is associated with increased mortality while its regression decreases it. It is unclear whether muscle strength is related to prediabetes progression or regression. This study investigated the associations of muscle strength, assessed by grip strength and chair‐rising time, with prediabetes progression and regression based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) enrolling middle‐aged and older adults.
Methods: We included 2623 participants with prediabetes from CHARLS, who were followed up 4 years later with blood samples collected for measuring fasting plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c. Grip strength (normalized by body weight) and chair‐rising time were assessed at baseline and categorized into tertiles (low, middle, and high groups). Prediabetes at baseline and follow‐up was defined primarily using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria and secondarily using the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Expert Committee (IEC) criteria. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: The mean age of included participants was 59.0 ± 8.6 years, and 46.6% of them were males. During follow‐up, 1646 participants remained as prediabetes, 379 progressed to diabetes, and 598 regressed to normoglycaemia based on ADA criteria. Participants who progressed to diabetes had lower normalized grip strength than those who remained as prediabetes (0.49 ± 0.15 vs. 0.53 ± 0.15, P < 0.001), but participants who regressed to normoglycaemia showed the opposite (0.55 ± 0.16 vs. 0.53 ± 0.15, P = 0.003). However, chair‐rising time was comparable across different groups (P overall = 0.17). Compared with participants in low normalized grip strength or high chair‐rising time group, those in high normalized grip strength or low chair‐rising time group had decreased odds of progression to diabetes (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.87; and OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93, respectively) after multivariable adjustment. However, both were unrelated to the odds of regression to normoglycaemia (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.25; and OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07, respectively). These outcomes remained generally comparable when prediabetes was defined by WHO or IEC criteria. Higher normalized grip strength but not lower chair‐rising time was prospectively associated with lower blood pressure, better glycaemic condition, and lower inflammation (all P ≤ 0.04).
Conclusions: High muscle strength is associated with reduced odds of progression to diabetes but does not predict regression to normoglycaemia in prediabetes. Future studies are warranted to assess whether increases in muscle strength promote prediabetes regression.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WE Musculoskeletal System > WE 20 Research (General)
WK Endocrine System > WK 20 Research (General)
WK Endocrine System > WK 810 Diabetes mellitus
WK Endocrine System > WK 818 Diet
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2022 12:49
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2023 06:45


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