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Where is the ‘C’ in antenatal care and postnatal care: A multi‐country survey of availability of antenatal and postnatal care in low‐ and middle‐income settings

Madaj, Barbara ORCID:, Gopalakrishnan, Somla ORCID:, Quach, Alexandre, Filiaci, Simone, Traore, Adama ORCID:, Bakusa, Dankom, Mdegela, Mselenge ORCID:, Yousofzai, Abdul Wali, Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed, Kodindo, Grace, Gami, Jean‐Pierre, Rostand, Njiki Dounou, Kessely, Hamit, Addo, Stephen Ayisi, Abbey, Mercy, Sapali, Mary, Omar, Ali, Ernest, Alex, Mtandu, Rugola, Agossou, Abram, Ketoh, Guillaume K., Furtado, Nicholas, Mangiaterra, Viviana and van den Broek, Nynke ORCID: (2022) 'Where is the ‘C’ in antenatal care and postnatal care: A multi‐country survey of availability of antenatal and postnatal care in low‐ and middle‐income settings'. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol 129, Issue 9, pp. 1546-1557.

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Objective: Antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) are logical entry points for prevention and treatment of pregnancy‐related illness and to reduce perinatal mortality. We developed signal functions and assessed availability of the essential components of care.

Design: Cross‐sectional survey.
Setting: Afghanistan, Chad, Ghana, Tanzania, Togo.
Sample: Three hundred and twenty‐one healthcare facilities.
Methods: Fifteen essential components or signal functions of ANC and PNC were identified. Healthcare facility assessment for availability of each component, human resources, equipment, drugs and consumables required to provide each component.
Main outcome measure: Availability of ANC PNC components.
Results: Across all countries, healthcare providers are available (median number per facility: 8; interquartile range [IQR] 3–17) with a ratio of 3:1 for secondary versus primary care. Significantly more women attend for ANC than PNC (1668 versus 300 per facility/year). None of the healthcare facilities was able to provide all 15 essential components of ANC and PNC. The majority (>75%) could provide five components: diagnosis and management of syphilis, vaccination to prevent tetanus, BMI assessment, gestational diabetes screening, monitoring newborn growth. In Sub‐Saharan countries, interventions for malaria and HIV (including prevention of mother to child transmission [PMTCT]) were available in 11.7–86.5% of facilities. Prevention and management of TB; assessment of pre‐ or post‐term birth, fetal wellbeing, detection of multiple pregnancy, abnormal lie and presentation; screening and support for mental health and domestic abuse were provided in <25% of facilities. Conclusions: Essential components of ANC and PNC are not in place. Focused attention on content is required if perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity during and after pregnancy are to be reduced.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 310 Maternal welfare
WQ Obstetrics > Childbirth. Prenatal Care > WQ 175 Prenatal care
WQ Obstetrics > WQ 500 Postnatal care
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2022 15:38
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2023 13:25


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