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Spatiotemporal distribution and insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in Ghana

Owusu-Asenso, Christopher M., Mingle, Julius A. A., Weetman, David ORCID: and Afrane, Yaw A. (2022) 'Spatiotemporal distribution and insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti in Ghana'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 15, Issue 1, e61.

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Background: Vector control is the main intervention used to control arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes because there are no effective vaccines or treatments for most of them. Control of Aedes mosquitoes relies heavily on the use of insecticides, the effectiveness of which may be impacted by resistance. In addition, rational insecticide application requires detailed knowledge of vector distribution, dynamics, resting, and feeding behaviours, which are poorly understood for Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. This study investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti across ecological extremes of Ghana.
Methods: Immature mosquitoes were sampled from containers in and around human dwellings at seven study sites in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Ghana. Adult Aedes mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors using Biogents BG-Sentinel 2 mosquito traps, human landing catches, and Prokopack aspiration. Distributions of immature and adult Aedes mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors during dry and rainy seasons at all sites. The phenotypic resistance status of Aedes mosquitoes to insecticides was determined using World Health Organization susceptibility bioassays. The host blood meal source was determined by polymerase chain reaction.
Results: A total of 16,711 immature Aedes were sampled, with over 70% found in car tyres. Significantly more breeding containers had Aedes immatures during the rainy season (11,856; 70.95%) compared to the dry season (4855; 29.05%). A total of 1895 adult Aedes mosquitos were collected, including Aedes aegypti (97.8%), Aedes africanus (2.1%) and Aedesluteocephalus (0.1%). Indoor sampling of adult Aedes yielded a total of 381 (20.1%) and outdoor sampling a total of 1514 (79.9%) mosquitoes (z = − 5.427, P = 0.0000) over the entire sampling period. Aedes aegypti populations were resistant to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at all study sites. Vectors showed suspected resistance to bendiocarb (96–97%), permethrin (90–96%) and deltamethrin (91–96%), and were susceptible to the organophosphate for all study sites. Blood meal analysis showed that the Aedes mosquitoes were mostly anthropophilic, with a human blood index of 0.9 (i.e. humans, 90%; human and dog, 5%; dog and cow, 5%). Conclusions: Aedes mosquitoes were found at high densities in all ecological zones of Ghana. Resistance of Aedes spp. to pyrethroids and carbamates may limit the efficacy of vector control programmes and thus requires careful monitoring. Graphical abstract:

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 525 Aedes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2022 11:52
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2022 11:52


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