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Distribution of acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) target-site G119S mutation and resistance to carbamates and organophosphates in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Cameroon

Binyang, Achille Jerome, Elanga-Ndille, Emmanuel, Tene-Fossog, Billy, Ndo, Cyrille, Nouage, Lynda, Assatse, Tatiane, Fotso-Toguem, Yvan, Tabue, Raymond, Zeukeng, Francis, Nguiffo, Daniel Nguete, Etang, Josiane, Njiokou, Flobert and Wondji, Charles ORCID: (2022) 'Distribution of acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) target-site G119S mutation and resistance to carbamates and organophosphates in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Cameroon'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 15, Issue 1, e53.

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Cameroon is considering the implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) as a complementary measure to control malaria in the context of high pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors. Non-pyrethroid insecticide classes such as organophosphates and carbamates may be utilized in IRS due to widespread pyrethroid resistance. However, the success of this strategy depends on good knowledge of the resistance status of malaria vectors to carbamates and organophosphates. Here, we assessed the susceptibility profile of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato with respect to carbamates and organophosphate and the distribution of the molecular mechanism underlying resistance to these insecticides.

Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from nine settings across the country and bio-assayed with bendiocarb, propoxur and pirimiphos-methyl. The Ace-1 target-site G119S mutation was genotyped using a TaqMan assay. To investigate the polymorphism in the Ace-1 gene, a region of 924 base pairs in a sequence of the gene was amplified from both live and dead females of An. gambiae exposed to bendiocarb.

Pirimiphos-methyl induced full mortality in An. gambiae s.l. from all study sites, whereas for carbamates, resistance was observed in four localities, with the lowest mortality rate recorded in Mangoum (17.78 ± 5.02% for bendiocarb and 18.61 ± 3.86% for propoxur) in the southern part of Cameroon. Anopheles coluzzii was found to be the predominant species in the northern tropical part of the country where it is sympatric with Anopheles arabiensis. In the localities situated in southern equatorial regions, this species was predominant in urban settings, while An. gambiae was the most abundant species in rural areas. The G119S Ace-1 target-site mutation was detected only in An. gambiae and only in the sites located in southern Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed a clustering according to the phenotype.

The occurrence of the Ace-1 target-site substitution G119S in An. gambiae s.l. populations highlights the challenge associated with the impending deployment of IRS in Cameroon using carbamates or organophosphates. It is therefore important to think about a resistance management plan including the use of other insecticide classes such as neonicotinoids or pyrrole to guarantee the implementation of IRS in Cameroon.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 470 Genetic structures
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2022 14:59
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2022 14:59


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