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Rapid evolution of insecticide resistance and patterns of pesticides usage in agriculture in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon

Sonhafouo-Chiana, Nadège, Nkahe, Leslie Diane, Kopya, Edmond, Awono-Ambene, Parfait Herman, Wanji, Samuel, Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 and Nkondjio, Christophe (2022) 'Rapid evolution of insecticide resistance and patterns of pesticides usage in agriculture in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 15, Issue 1, e186.

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Abstract

Background: The practice of agriculture in urban settings contributes to the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. However, there is still not enough information on pesticide usage in most urban settings. The present study aims to assess the evolution of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) population susceptibility to insecticides and patterns of pesticide usage in agriculture in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Methods: WHO susceptibility tests and synergist PBO bioassays were conducted on adult An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes aged 3 to 5 days emerging from larvae collected from the field. Seven insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur, fenitrothion and malathion) were evaluated. The presence of target site mutation conferring knockdown (kdr) resistance was investigated using TaqMan assay, and mosquito species were identified using SINE-PCR. Surveys on 81 retailers and 232 farmers were conducted to assess general knowledge and practices regarding agricultural pesticide usage.

Results: High resistance intensity to pyrethroids was observed with a high frequency of the kdr allele 1014F and low frequency of the kdr 1014S allele. The level of susceptibility of An. gambiae (s.l.) to pyrethroids and carbamates was found to decrease with time (from > 34% in 2017 to < 23% in 2019 for deltamethrin and permethrin and from 97% in 2017 to < 86% in 2019 for bendiocarb). Both An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii were recorded. Over 150 pesticides and fertilizers were sold by retailers for agricultural purposes in the city of Yaoundé. Most farmers do not respect safety practices. Poor practices including extensive and inappropriate application of pesticides as well as poor management of perished pesticides and empty pesticide containers were also documented.

Conclusions: The study indicated rapid evolution of insecticide resistance and uncontrolled usage of pesticides by farmers in agriculture. There is an urgent need to address these gaps to improve the management of insecticide resistance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05321-8
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 21 Sep 2022 13:16
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2022 13:16
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/20516

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