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Prevalence of non- Plasmodium falciparum species in southern districts of Brazzaville in The Republic of the Congo

Mbama Ntabi, Jacques Dollon, Lissom, Abel, Djontu, Jean Claude, Diafouka-Kietela, Steve, Vouvoungui, Christevy, Boumpoutou, Reauchelvy Kamal, Mayela, Jolivet, Nguiffo-Nguete, Daniel, Nkemngo, Francis Nongley, Ndo, Cyrille, Akoton, Romaric, Agonhossou, Romuald, Lenga, Arsène, Boussougou-Sambe, Stravensky Terence, Djogbenou, Luc, Wondji, Charles ORCID:, Adegnika, Ayola Akim, Borrmann, Steffen and Ntoumi, Francine (2022) 'Prevalence of non- Plasmodium falciparum species in southern districts of Brazzaville in The Republic of the Congo'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 15, Issue 1, e209.

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Background: Although Plasmodium falciparum infection is largely documented and this parasite is the main target for malaria eradication, other Plasmodium species persist, and these require more attention in Africa. Information on the epidemiological situation of non-P. falciparum species infections is scarce in many countries, including in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (hereafter Republic of the Congo) where malaria is highly endemic. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of non-P. falciparum species infections in the region south of Brazzaville.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in volunteers living in rural and urban settings during the dry and rainy seasons in 2021. Socio-demographic and clinical parameters were recorded. Plasmodium infection in blood samples was detected by microscopic analysis and nested PCR (sub-microscopic analysis).

Results: Of the 773 participants enrolled in the study, 93.7% were from the rural area, of whom 97% were afebrile. The prevalence of microscopic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium spp. infection was 31.2% and 63.7%, respectively. Microscopic Plasmodium malariae infection was found in 1.3% of participants, while sub-microscopic studies detected a prevalence of 14.9% for P. malariae and 5.3% for Plasmodium ovale. The rate of co-infection of P. malariae or P. ovale with P. falciparum was 8.3% and 2.6%, respectively. Higher rates of sub-microscopic infection were reported for the urban area without seasonal fluctuation. In contrast, non-P. falciparum species infection was more pronounced in the rural area, with the associated risk of the prevalence of sub-microscopic P. malariae infection increasing during the dry season.

Conclusion: There is a need to include non-P. falciparum species in malaria control programs, surveillance measures and eradication strategies in the Republic of the Congo. Graphical Abstract:

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > QX 45 Host-parasite relations
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2022 12:38
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2023 11:03


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