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Reduced performance of community bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vectors in Cameroon

Ngongang-Yipmo, Emilie S., Tchouakui, Magellan, Menze, Benjamin, Mugenzi, Leon M. J., Njiokou, Flobert and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2022) 'Reduced performance of community bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vectors in Cameroon'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 15, Issue 1, e230.

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Abstract

Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a vital tool in the fight against malaria vectors. However, their efficacy in the field can be impacted by several factors, including patterns of usage, net age, mosquito resistance and the delayed mortality effect, all of which could influence malaria transmission. We have investigated the effectiveness of the various brands of LLINs available in markets and households in Cameroon on pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and assessed their post-exposure effect.

Methods: Following quality control assessment on a susceptible laboratory mosquito strain, we evaluated the immediate and delayed mortality effects of exposure to LLINs (both newly bough LLINst and used ones collected from households in Elende village, Cameroon, in 2019) using standard WHO cone tests on Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus populations collected from the Centre region of Cameroon. Alive female mosquitoes were genotyped for various resistance markers at different time points post-exposure to evaluate the impact of insecticide resistance on the efficacy of bednets.

Results: The laboratory-susceptible strain experienced high mortality rates when exposed to all pyrethroid-only brands of purchased nets (Olyset® Net, Super Net, PermaNet® 2.0, Yorkool®, Royal Sentry®) (Mean±SEM: 68.66 ± 8.35% to 93.33 ± 2.90%). However, low mortality was observed among wild An. funestus mosquitoes exposed to the bednets (0 ± 0 to 28 ± 6.7%), indicating a reduced performance of these nets against field mosquitoes. Bednets collected from households also showed reduced efficacy on the laboratory strain (mortality: 19–66%), as well as displaying a significant loss of efficacy against the local wild strains (mortality: 0 ± 0% to 4 ± 2.6% for An. gambiae sensu lato and 0 ± 0% to 8 ± 3.2% for An. funestus). However, compared to the unexposed group, mosquitoes exposed to bednets showed a significantly reduced longevity, indicating that the efficacy of these nets was not completely lost. Mosquitoes with the CYP6P9a-RR and L119F-GSTe2 mutations conferring pyrethroid resistance showed greater longevity after exposure to the Olyset net than their susceptible counterparts, indicating the impact of resistance on bednet efficacy and delayed mortality.

Conclusion: These findings show that although standard bednets drastically lose their efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant field mosquitoes, they still are able to induce delayed mortality in exposed populations. The results of this study also provide evidence of the actual impact of resistance on the quality and efficacy of LLINs in use in the community, with mosquitoes carrying the CYP6P9a-RR and L119F-GSTe2 mutations conferring pyrethroid resistance living longer than their susceptible counterparts. These results highlight the need to use new-generation nets that do not rely solely on pyrethroids.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05335-2
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2022 13:18
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2022 13:18
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/20653

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