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The determinants of staff retention after Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care training in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

Shikuku, Duncan, Nyaoke, Irene, Maina, Onesmus, Eyinda, Martin, Gichuru, Sylvia, Nyaga, Lucy, Iman, Fatuma, Tallam, Edna, Wako, Ibrahim, Bashir, Issak, Allott, Helen and Ameh, Charles ORCID: (2022) 'The determinants of staff retention after Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care training in Kenya: a cross-sectional study'. BMC Health Services Research, Vol 22, Issue 1, e872.

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Kenya’s maternal mortality ratio is relatively high at 342/100,000 live births. Confidential enquiry into maternal deaths showed that 90% of the maternal deaths received substandard care with health workforce related factors identified in 75% of 2015/2016 maternal deaths. Competent Skilled Health Personnel (SHP) providing emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in an enabling environment reduces the risk of adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. The study objective was to identify factors that determine the retention of SHP 1 – 5 years after EmONC training in Kenya.
A cross-sectional review of EmONC SHP in five counties (Kilifi, Taita Taveta, Garissa, Vihiga and Uasin Gishu) was conducted between January-February 2020. Data was extracted from a training database. Verification of current health facilities where trained SHP were deployed and reasons for non-retention were collected. Descriptive data analysis, transfer rate by county and logistic regression for SHP retention determinants was performed.
A total of 927 SHP were trained from 2014-2019. Most SHP trained were nurse/midwives (677, 73%) followed by clinical officers (151, 16%) and doctors (99, 11%). Half (500, 54%) of trained SHP were retained in the same facility. Average trained staff transfer rate was 43%, with Uasin Gishu lowest at 24% and Garissa highest at 50%. Considering a subset of trained staff from level 4/5 facilities with distinct hospital departments, only a third (36%) of them are still working in relevant maternity/newborn/gynaecology departments. There was a statistically significant difference in transfer rate by gender in Garissa, Vihiga and the combined 5 counties (p<0.05). Interval from training in years (1 year, AOR=4.2 (2.1-8.4); cadre (nurse/midwives, AOR=2.5 (1.4-4.5); and county (Uasin Gishu AOR=9.5 (4.6- 19.5), Kilifi AOR=4.0 (2.1-7.7) and Taita Taveta AOR=1.9 (1.1-3.5), p<0.05, were significant determinants of staff retention in the maternity departments.
Retention of EmONC trained SHP in the relevant maternity departments was low at 36 percent. SHP were more likely to be retained by 1-year after training compared to the subsequent years and this varied from county to county. County policies and guidelines on SHP deployment, transfers and retention should be strengthened to optimise the benefits of EmONC training.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: W General Medicine. Health Professions > W 21.5 Allied health personnel. Allied health professions
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 310 Maternal welfare
WA Public Health > Statistics. Surveys > WA 950 Theory or methods of medical statistics. Epidemiologic methods
WQ Obstetrics > Labor > WQ 330 Complications of labor
WQ Obstetrics > Obstetric Surgical Procedures > WQ 400 General works
WS Pediatrics > By Age Groups > WS 420 Newborn infants. Neonatology
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Mary Creegan
Date Deposited: 20 Jul 2022 10:51
Last Modified: 20 Jul 2022 10:51


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