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Childhood pneumonia diagnostics: a narrative review

Ojuawo, Olutobi, Ojuawo, Ayotade, Aladesanmi, Adeniyi, Adio, Mosunmoluwa and Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying ORCID: (2022) 'Childhood pneumonia diagnostics: a narrative review'. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, Vol 16, Issue 7, pp. 775-785.

Narrative Review Article on Childhood Pneumonia OO_PI.pdf - Accepted Version

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Childhood pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of death in children with highest mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The primary etiologies are bacterial and viral; however, challenges in distinguishing bacterial and non-bacterial causes have culminated in antimicrobial overuse which has partly contributed to the rise in antimicrobial resistance, most notably among children in low- and middle-income countries.

Areas covered

Existing literature was reviewed regarding modalities available, including emerging radiological and laboratory techniques, to diagnose childhood pneumonia. We evaluated their strengths and limitations, and their ability to distinguish between bacterial and viral etiologies.

Expert opinion

The optimal modality to diagnose childhood pneumonia continues to be a challenge. This is a concern given its high disease burden and the importance of diagnostics for clinical care and antimicrobial stewardship, in the setting of rising antimicrobial resistance. Lung ultrasonography is a promising radiologic diagnostic modality. Combined serum biomarkers, micro-array-based whole-genome expression arrays and metabolomic analysis are also emerging biochemical modalities for childhood pneumonia diagnosis. More research and further validation are required to evaluate the diagnostic strengths of these new and emerging modalities as well as their ability to discriminate between the major etiologies of the disease.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WC Communicable Diseases > Infection. Bacterial Infections > Bacterial Infections > WC 202 Pneumonia (General or not elsewhere classified)
WS Pediatrics > WS 100 General works
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2023 09:46
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2023 09:49


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