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Temporal trends in molecular markers of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in human blood and profiles of corresponding resistant markers in mosquito oocysts in Asembo, western Kenya

Zhou, Zhiyong, Gimnig, John E., Sergent, Sheila B., Liu, Ying, Abong’o, Bernard, Otieno, Kephas, Chebore, Winnie, Shah, Monica P., Williamson, John, terKuile, Feiko ORCID:, Hamel, Mary J., Kariuki, Simon, Desai, Meghna, Samuels, Aaron M., Walker, Edward D. and Shi, Ya Ping (2022) 'Temporal trends in molecular markers of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in human blood and profiles of corresponding resistant markers in mosquito oocysts in Asembo, western Kenya'. Malaria Journal, Vol 21, Issue 1, e265.

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Background: Over the last two decades, the scale-up of vector control and changes in the first-line anti-malarial, from chloroquine (CQ) to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and then to artemether-lumefantrine (AL), have resulted in significant decreases in malaria burden in western Kenya. This study evaluated the long-term effects of control interventions on molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance using parasites obtained from humans and mosquitoes at discrete time points.

Methods: Dried blood spot samples collected in 2012 and 2017 community surveys in Asembo, Kenya were genotyped by Sanger sequencing for markers associated with resistance to SP (Pfdhfr, Pfdhps), CQ, AQ, lumefantrine (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1) and artemisinin (Pfk13). Temporal trends in the prevalence of these markers, including data from 2012 to 2017 as well as published data from 1996, 2001, 2007 from same area, were analysed. The same markers from mosquito oocysts collected in 2012 were compared with results from human blood samples.

Results: The prevalence of SP dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant haplotype C50I51R59N108I164/S436G437E540A581A613 increased from 19.7% in 1996 to 86.0% in 2012, while an increase in the sextuple mutant haplotype C50I51R59N108I164/H436G437E540A581A613 containing Pfdhps-436H was found from 10.5% in 2012 to 34.6% in 2017. Resistant Pfcrt-76 T declined from 94.6% in 2007 to 18.3% in 2012 and 0.9% in 2017. Mutant Pfmdr1-86Y decreased across years from 74.8% in 1996 to zero in 2017, mutant Pfmdr1-184F and wild Pfmdr1-D1246 increased from 17.9% to 58.9% in 2007 to 55.9% and 90.1% in 2017, respectively. Pfmdr1 haplotype N86F184S1034N1042D1246 increased from 11.0% in 2007 to 49.6% in 2017. No resistant mutations in Pfk13 were found. Prevalence of Pfdhps-436H was lower while prevalence of Pfcrt-76 T was higher in mosquitoes than in human blood samples.

Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of dhfr/dhps resistant markers over 20 years with the emergence of Pfdhps-436H mutant a decade ago in Asembo. The reversal of Pfcrt from CQ-resistant to CQ-sensitive genotype occurred following 19 years of CQ withdrawal. No Pfk13 markers associated with artemisinin resistance were detected, but the increased haplotype of Pfmdr1 N86F184S1034N1042D1246 was observed. The differences in prevalence of Pfdhps-436H and Pfcrt-76 T SNPs between two hosts and the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of drug resistant parasites require further investigation.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > QW 45 Microbial drug resistance. General or not elsewhere classified.
QX Parasitology > QX 19 Schools, departments, and faculties of parasitology.
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2022 15:52
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2022 15:52


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