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Economic evaluation of postdischarge malaria chemoprevention in preschool children treated for severe anaemia in Malawi, Kenya, and Uganda: A cost-effectiveness analysis

Kühl, Melf-Jakob, Gondwe, Thandile, Dhabangi, Aggrey, Kwambai, Titus, Mori, Amani T., Opoka, Robert, John, C. Chandy, Idro, Richard, terKuile, Feiko ORCID:, Phiri, Kamija S. and Robberstad, Bjarne (2022) 'Economic evaluation of postdischarge malaria chemoprevention in preschool children treated for severe anaemia in Malawi, Kenya, and Uganda: A cost-effectiveness analysis'. EClinicalMedicine, Vol 52, e101669.

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Children hospitalised with severe anaemia in malaria-endemic areas are at a high risk of dying or being readmitted within six months of discharge. A trial in Kenya and Uganda showed that three months of postdischarge malaria chemoprevention (PDMC) with monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) substantially reduced this risk. The World Health Organization recently included PDMC in its malaria chemoprevention guidelines. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of community-based PDMC delivery (supplying all three PDMC-DP courses to caregivers at discharge to administer at home), facility-based PDMC delivery (monthly dispensing of PDMC-DP at the hospital), and the standard of care (no PDMC).


We combined data from two recently completed trials; one placebo-controlled trial in Kenya and Uganda collecting efficacy data (May 6, 2016 until November 15, 2018; n=1049), and one delivery mechanism trial from Malawi collecting adherence data (March 24, 2016 until October 3, 2018; n=375). Cost data were collected alongside both trials. Three Markov decision models, one each for Malawi, Kenya, and Uganda, were used to compute incremental cost-effectiveness ratios expressed as costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainty.


Both PDMC strategies were cost-saving in each country, meaning less costly and more effective in increasing health-adjusted life expectancy than the standard of care. The estimated incremental cost savings for community-based PDMC compared to the standard of care were US$ 22·10 (Malawi), 38·52 (Kenya), and 26·23 (Uganda) per child treated. The incremental effectiveness gain using either PDMC strategy varied between 0·3 and 0·4 QALYs. Community-based PDMC was less costly and more effective than facility-based PDMC. These results remained robust in sensitivity analyses.


PDMC under implementation conditions is cost-saving. Caregivers receiving PDMC at discharge is a cost-effective delivery strategy for implementation in malaria-endemic southeastern African settings.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WH Hemic and Lymphatic Systems > Hematologic Diseases. Immunologic Factors. Blood Banks > WH 155 Anemia
WS Pediatrics > Diseases of Children and Adolescents > By System > WS 300 Hemic and lymphatic system
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2022 11:45
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2022 11:45


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