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Accuracy of computer-aided chest X-ray in community-based tuberculosis screening: Lessons from the 2016 Kenya National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey

Mungai, Brenda, Ong‘angò, Jane, Ku, Chu Chang, Henrion, Marc, Morton, Ben ORCID:, Joekes, Elizabeth, Onyango, Elizabeth, Kiplimo, Richard, Kirathe, Dickson, Masini, Enos, Sitienei, Joseph, Manduku, Veronica, Mugi, Beatrice, Squire, Bertie ORCID: and MacPherson, Peter ORCID: (2022) 'Accuracy of computer-aided chest X-ray in community-based tuberculosis screening: Lessons from the 2016 Kenya National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey'. PLOS Global Public Health, Vol 2, Issue 11, e0001272.

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Community-based screening for tuberculosis (TB) could improve detection but is resource intensive. We set out to evaluate the accuracy of computer-aided TB screening using digital chest X-ray (CXR) to determine if this approach met target product profiles (TPP) for community-based screening. CXR images from participants in the 2016 Kenya National TB Prevalence Survey were evaluated using CAD4TBv6 (Delft Imaging), giving a probabilistic score for pulmonary TB ranging from 0 (low probability) to 99 (high probability). We constructed a Bayesian latent class model to estimate the accuracy of CAD4TBv6 screening compared to bacteriologically-confirmed TB across CAD4TBv6 threshold cut-offs, incorporating data on Clinical Officer CXR interpretation, participant demographics (age, sex, TB symptoms, previous TB history), and sputum results. We compared model-estimated sensitivity and specificity of CAD4TBv6 to optimum and minimum TPPs. Of 63,050 prevalence survey participants, 61,848 (98%) had analysable CXR images, and 8,966 (14.5%) underwent sputum bacteriological testing; 298 had bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB. Median CAD4TBv6 scores for participants with bacteriologically-confirmed TB were significantly higher (72, IQR: 58–82.75) compared to participants with bacteriologically-negative sputum results (49, IQR: 44–57, p<0.0001). CAD4TBv6 met the optimum TPP; with the threshold set to achieve a mean sensitivity of 95% (optimum TPP), specificity was 83.3%, (95% credible interval [CrI]: 83.0%—83.7%, CAD4TBv6 threshold: 55). There was considerable variation in accuracy by participant characteristics, with older individuals and those with previous TB having lowest specificity. CAD4TBv6 met the optimal TPP for TB community screening. To optimise screening accuracy and efficiency of confirmatory sputum testing, we recommend that an adaptive approach to threshold setting is adopted based on participant characteristics.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 220 Diagnosis. Prognosis
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 225 Mass chest X-ray
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Cathy Waldron
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2022 11:59
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2022 11:59


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