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Insecticide Resistance Profile and Mechanisms in An. gambiae s.l. from Ebolowa, South Cameroon

Efa, Salomon, Elanga-Ndille, Emmanuel, Poumachu, Yacouba, Tene, Billy, Mikande, Jacqueline Ze, Zakariaou, Njoumémi, Wondji, Charles ORCID: and Ndo, Cyrille (2022) 'Insecticide Resistance Profile and Mechanisms in An. gambiae s.l. from Ebolowa, South Cameroon'. Insects, Vol 13, Issue 12, p. 1133.

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Monitoring the trend of insecticide resistance and understanding associated genetic mechanisms is important for designing efficient malaria vector control strategies. This study was conducted to provide temporal data on insecticide resistance status and mechanisms in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Ebolowa, Southern Cameroon. Methods: Larvae of An. gambiae s.l. were collected from typical breeding sites throughout the city and reared to adulthood. Emerging adults were morphologically identified and WHO tube assays were performed to determine their susceptibility to carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides at diagnostic doses. When resistance was observed, its intensity was determined by performing WHO tube tests using 5 and 10 times the concentration of the diagnostic dose. Metabolic resistance mechanisms were investigated using insecticide-synergist assays. Sibling species of the An. gambiae complex were identified using SINE-PCR protocol. TaqMan assay was used to genotype the L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations, and the N1575Y mutation, an amplifier of the resistance conferred by the L1014F mutation. Results: Anopheles coluzzii was by far the dominant (99%) member of the An. gambiae s.l. complex in Ebolowa. The species was fully susceptible to carbamates and organophosphates, but resistant to all pyrethroid insecticides tested. Resistance was of moderate intensity for deltamethrin (mortality: 37%, 70% and 99% for 1×, 5× and 10× insecticide concentration, respectively) but rather of high intensity for permethrin (5% for 1×; 62% for 5× and 75% for 10×) and for alphacypermethrin (4.4% for 1×; 57% for 5× and 80% for 10×). Pre-exposure to the synergist PBO resulted in a full recovery of the susceptibility to delthametrin, but this was not observed for the other two pyrethroids tested. L1014S (kdr-East) and the N1575Y mutations were absent, whereas the L1014F (kdr-West) mutation was present at a high frequency (75%), showing a significant association with resistance to permethrin (OR = 3.8; 95%; CI [1.9–7.4]; p < 0.0001) and alphacypermethrin (OR = 3; 95%; CI [1.6–5.4]; p = 0.0002). Conclusion: The increased resistance of An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroid insecticides as observed in Ebolowa poses a threat to the efficacy of LLINs used to protect populations from the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites. The present study further highlights the urgent need to implement resistance management strategies in order to maintain the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control interventions and prevent a rebound in malaria-related mortality.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2023 15:32
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2023 15:32


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