LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

Confirmation of the presence of Anopheles stephensi among internally displaced people’s camps and host communities in Aden city, Yemen

Allan, Richard, Weetman, David ORCID:, Sauskojus, Hendrik, Budge, Sophie, Hawail, Tarek Bin and Baheshm, Yasser (2023) 'Confirmation of the presence of Anopheles stephensi among internally displaced people’s camps and host communities in Aden city, Yemen'. Malaria Journal, Vol 22, e1.

12936_2022_Article_4427.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Background: Declines in global malaria cases and deaths since the millennium are currently challenged by multiple factors including funding limitations, limits of, and resistance to vector control tools, and also recent spread of the invasive vector species, Anopheles stephensi—especially into novel urban settings where malaria rates are typically low. Coupled with general increases in urbanization and escalations in the number of conflicts creating rapid and unplanned population displacement into temporary shelter camps within host urban areas, particularly in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, increased urban malaria is a major threat to control and elimination.
Methods: Entomological monitoring surveys (targeting Aedes aegypti) of water containers across urban areas hosting internally displaced people (IDP) communities in Aden city, Yemen, were performed by The MENTOR Initiative, a non-governmental organisation. As part of these surveys in 2021 23 larvae collected and raised to adults were morphologically identified as An. stephensi. Twelve of the samples were sent to Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine for independent morphological assessment and genetic analysis by sequencing the ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial COI gene.
Results: All twelve samples were confirmed morphologically and by sequence comparison of the single ITS2 and COI haplotype detected to the NCBI BLAST database as An. stephensi. Phylogenetic analysis with comparable COI sequences indicated close relationship to haplotypes found in Djibouti and Ethiopia.
Conclusion: The study results confirm the presence of An. stephensi in Yemen. Confirmation of the species in multiple urban communities hosting thousands of IDPs living in temporary shelters with widescale dependency on open water containers is of particular concern due to the vulnerability of the population and abundance of favourable breeding sites for the vector. Proactive monitoring and targeted integrated vector management are required to limit impacts in this area of typically low malaria transmission, and to prevent further the spread of An. stephensi within the region.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 300 General. Refugees
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2023 14:24
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2023 14:24


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item