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Optimising diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection in community and primary care settings in two urban provinces of Viet Nam: a cohort study

Vo, Luan Nguyen Quang, Nguyen, Viet Nhung, Nguyen, Nga Thi Thuy, Dong, Thuy Thi Thu, Codlin, Andrew, Forse, Rachel, Truong, Huyen Thanh, Nguyen, Hoa Binh, Dang, Ha Thi Minh, Truong, Vinh Van, Nguyen, Lan Huu, Mac, Tuan Huy, Le, Phong Thanh, Tran, Khoa Tu, Ndunda, Nduku, Caws, Maxine ORCID: and Creswell, Jacob (2023) 'Optimising diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection in community and primary care settings in two urban provinces of Viet Nam: a cohort study'. BMJ Open, Vol 13, Issue 2, e071537.

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Objectives: To end tuberculosis (TB), the vast reservoir of 1.7–2.3 billion TB infections (TBIs) must be addressed, but achieving global TB preventive therapy (TPT) targets seems unlikely. This study assessed the feasibility of using interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) at lower healthcare levels and the comparative performance of 3-month and 9-month daily TPT regimens (3HR/9H).

Design, setting, participants and intervention: This cohort study was implemented in two provinces of Viet Nam from May 2019 to September 2020. Participants included household contacts (HHCs), vulnerable community members and healthcare workers (HCWs) recruited at community-based TB screening events or HHC investigations at primary care centres, who were followed up throughout TPT. Primary and secondary outcomes: We constructed TBI care cascades describing indeterminate and positivity rates to assess feasibility, and initiation and completion rates to assess performance. We fitted mixed-effects logistic and stratified Cox models to identify factors associated with IGRA positivity and loss to follow-up (LTFU).

Results: Among 5837 participants, the indeterminate rate was 0.8%, and 30.7% were IGRA positive. TPT initiation and completion rates were 63.3% (3HR=61.2% vs 9H=63.6%; p=0.147) and 80.6% (3HR=85.7% vs 9H=80.0%; p=0.522), respectively. Being male (adjusted OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.78; p<0.001), aged 45–59 years (1.30; 1.05 to 1.60; p=0.018) and exhibiting TB-related abnormalities on X-ray (2.23; 1.38 to 3.61; p=0.001) were associated with positive IGRA results. Risk of IGRA positivity was lower in periurban districts (0.55; 0.36 to 0.85; p=0.007), aged <15 years (0.18; 0.13 to 0.26; p<0.001), aged 15–29 years (0.56; 0.42 to 0.75; p<0.001) and HCWs (0.34; 0.24 to 0.48; p<0.001). The 3HR regimen (adjusted HR=3.83; 1.49 to 9.84; p=0.005) and HCWs (1.38; 1.25 to 1.53; p<0.001) showed higher hazards of LTFU.

Conclusion: Providing IGRAs at lower healthcare levels is feasible and along with shorter regimens may expand access and uptake towards meeting TPT targets, but scale-up may require complementary advocacy and education for beneficiaries and providers.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Health Administration and Organization > WA 546 Local Health Administration. Community Health Services
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 220 Diagnosis. Prognosis
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 310 Therapy
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2023 15:05
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2023 15:05


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