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Anopheles gambiae distribution and insecticide resistance in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution

Nkondjio, Christophe, Fossog, Billy, Ndo, Cyrille, Djantio, Benjamin, Togouet, Serge, Awono-Ambene, Parfait, Costantini, Carlo, Wondji, Charles ORCID: and Ranson, Hilary ORCID: (2011) 'Anopheles gambiae distribution and insecticide resistance in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution'. Malaria Journal, Vol 10, Issue 1, p. 154.

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Background: Urban malaria is becoming a major health priority across Africa. A study was undertaken to assess
the importance of urban pollution and agriculture practice on the distribution and susceptibility to insecticide of
malaria vectors in the two main cities in Cameroon.

Methods: Anopheline larval breeding sites were surveyed and water samples analysed monthly from October 2009 to December 2010. Parameters analysed included turbidity, pH, temperature, conductivity, sulfates, phosphates,nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, aluminium, alkalinity, iron, potassium, manganese, magnesium, magnesium hardness and total hardness. Characteristics of water bodies in urban areas were compared to rural areas and between urban sites. The level of susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion were compared between mosquitoes collected from polluted, non polluted and cultivated areas.

Results: A total of 1,546 breeding sites, 690 in Yaoundé and 856 in Douala, were sampled in the course of the study. Almost all measured parameters had a concentration of 2- to 100-fold higher in urban compare to rural breeding sites. No resistance to malathion was detected, but bendiocarb resistance was present in Yaounde. Very low mortality rates were observed following DDT or permethrin exposure, associated with high kdr frequencies. Mosquitoes collected in cultivated areas, exhibited the highest resistant levels. There was little difference in insecticide resistance or kdr allele frequency in mosquitoes collected from polluted versus non-polluted sites.

Conclusion: The data confirm high selection pressure on mosquitoes originating from urban areas and suggest urban agriculture rather than pollution as the major factor driving resistance to insecticide.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > QW 45 Microbial drug resistance. General or not elsewhere classified.
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immune Responses > QW 700 Infection. Mechanisms of infection and resistance.
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > WA 100 General works
WA Public Health > WA 20.5 Research (General)
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Users 183 not found.
Date Deposited: 19 Aug 2011 12:56
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2019 15:47


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