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Efficacy of a ‘lethal house lure’ against Culex quinquefasciatus from Bouaké city, Côte d’Ivoire

Tia, Innocent Z., Barreaux, Antoine M. G., Oumbouke, Welbeck, Koffi, Alphonsine A., Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P., Camara, Soromane, Wolie, Rosine Z., Sternberg, Eleanore, Dahounto, Amal, Yapi, Gregoire Y., Thomas, Matthew B. and N’Guessan, Raphael (2023) 'Efficacy of a ‘lethal house lure’ against Culex quinquefasciatus from Bouaké city, Côte d’Ivoire'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 16, Issue 1, e300.

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Eave tube technology is a novel method of insecticide application that uses an electrostatic coating system to boost insecticide efficacy against resistant mosquitoes. A series of previous experiments showed encouraging insecticidal effects against malaria vectors. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the eave tube approach on other Culicidae, in particular Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory and semi-field conditions.

Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Bouaké were collected and reared to adult stage, and World Health Organization (WHO) cylinder tests were performed to determine their resistance status. WHO standard 3-min cone bioassays were conducted using PermaNet 2.0 netting versus eave tube-treated inserts. To assess the transient exposure effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus, eave tube assay utilizing smelly socks as attractant was performed with exposure time of 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min on 10% beta-cyfluthrin-treated inserts. Residual activity of these treated inserts was then monitored over 9 months. Field tests involving release–recapture of Cx. quinquefasciatus within enclosures around experimental huts fitted with windows and untreated or insecticide-treated eave tubes were conducted to determine house entry preference and the impact of tubes on the survival of this species.

Bouaké Cx. quinquefasciatus displayed high resistance to three out of four classes of insecticides currently used in public health. After 3 min of exposure in cone tests, 10% beta-cyfluthrin-treated inserts induced 100% mortality in Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas the long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) only killed 4.5%. With reduced exposure time on the eave tube insert, mortality was still 100% after 2 min, 88% after 1 min, and 44% after 30 s. Mortality following 1 h exposure on 10% beta-cyfluthrin-treated insert was > 80% continuously up to 7 months post-treatment. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus have a stronger preference for entering a house through the eaves than through windows. Beta-cyfluthrin-treated inserts were able to kill 51% of resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus released within the enclosure.

Eave tubes are a novel method for delivery of insecticide to the house. They attract nuisance host-seeking Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and are as effective in controlling them as they are against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae, despite the high level of resistance Cx. quinquefasciatus have developed.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 31 Aug 2023 13:57
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2023 13:57


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