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Changes in contributions of different Anopheles vector species to malaria transmission in east and southern Africa from 2000 to 2022

Msugupakulya, Betwel, Urio, Naomi H., Jumanne, Mohammed, Ngowo, Halfan S., Selvaraj, Prashanth, Okumu, Fredros O. and Wilson, Anne ORCID: (2023) 'Changes in contributions of different Anopheles vector species to malaria transmission in east and southern Africa from 2000 to 2022'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 16, Issue 1, e408.

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Malaria transmission in Africa is facilitated by multiple species of Anopheles mosquitoes. These vectors have different behaviors and vectorial capacities and are affected differently by vector control interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This review aimed to assess changes in the contribution of different vector species to malaria transmission in east and southern Africa over 20 years of widespread insecticide-based vector control.

We searched PubMed, Global Health, and Web of Science online databases for articles published between January 2000 and April 2023 that provided species-specific sporozoite rates for different malaria vectors in east and southern Africa. We extracted data on study characteristics, biting rates, sporozoite infection proportions, and entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Using EIR data, the proportional contribution of each species to malaria transmission was estimated.

Studies conducted between 2000 and 2010 identified the Anopheles gambiae complex as the primary malaria vector, while studies conducted from 2011 to 2021 indicated the dominance of Anopheles funestus. From 2000 to 2010, in 57% of sites, An. gambiae demonstrated higher parasite infection prevalence than other Anopheles species. Anopheles gambiae also accounted for over 50% of EIR in 76% of the study sites. Conversely, from 2011 to 2021, An. funestus dominated with higher infection rates than other Anopheles in 58% of sites and a majority EIR contribution in 63% of sites. This trend coincided with a decline in overall EIR and the proportion of sporozoite-infected An. gambiae. The main vectors in the An. gambiae complex in the region were Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), while the important member of the An. funestus group was An. funestus s.s.

The contribution of different vector species in malaria transmission has changed over the past 20 years. As the role of An. gambiae has declined, An. funestus now appears to be dominant in most settings in east and southern Africa. Other secondary vector species may play minor roles in specific localities. To improve malaria control in the region, vector control should be optimized to match these entomological trends, considering the different ecologies and behaviors of the dominant vector species.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2023 10:13
Last Modified: 09 Nov 2023 10:13


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