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Determinants of catastrophic costs among households affected by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam: a prospective cohort study

Pham, Thi Anh Mai, Forse, Rachel, Codlin, Andrew J., Phan, Thi Hoang Yen, Nguyen, Thanh Thi, Nguyen, Nga, Vo, Luan Nguyen Quang, Dat, Phan Thuong, Minh, Ha Dang Thi, Nguyen, Lan Huu, Nguyen, Hoa Binh, Nguyen, Nhung Viet, Bodfish, Miranda, Lönnroth, Knut, Wingfield, Tom ORCID: and Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney (2023) 'Determinants of catastrophic costs among households affected by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam: a prospective cohort study'. BMC Public Health, Vol 23, Issue 1, e2372.

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Globally, most people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and their households experience catastrophic costs of illness, diagnosis, and care. However, the factors associated with experiencing catastrophic costs are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with catastrophic costs incurrence among MDR-TB-affected households in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam.

Between October 2020 and April 2022, data were collected using a locally-adapted, longitudinal WHO TB Patient Cost Survey in ten districts of HCMC. Ninety-four people with MDR-TB being treated with a nine-month TB regimen were surveyed at three time points: after two weeks of treatment initiation, completion of the intensive phase and the end of the treatment (approximately five and 10 months post-treatment initiation respectively). The catastrophic costs threshold was defined as total TB-related costs exceeding 20% of annual pre-TB household income. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with experiencing catastrophic costs. A sensitivity analysis examined the prevalence of catastrophic costs using alternative thresholds and cost estimation approaches.

Most participants (81/93 [87%]) experienced catastrophic costs despite the majority 86/93 (93%) receiving economic support through existing social protection schemes. Among participant households experiencing and not experiencing catastrophic costs, median household income was similar before MDR-TB treatment. However, by the end of MDR-TB treatment, median household income was lower (258 [IQR: 0–516] USD vs. 656 [IQR: 462–989] USD; p = 0.003), and median income loss was higher (2838 [IQR: 1548–5418] USD vs. 301 [IQR: 0–824] USD; p < 0.001) amongst the participant households who experienced catastrophic costs. Being the household’s primary income earner before MDR-TB treatment (aOR = 11.2 [95% CI: 1.6–80.5]), having a lower educational level (aOR = 22.3 [95% CI: 1.5–344.1]) and becoming unemployed at the beginning of MDR-TB treatment (aOR = 35.6 [95% CI: 2.7–470.3]) were associated with experiencing catastrophic costs.

Despite good social protection coverage, most people with MDR-TB in HCMC experienced catastrophic costs. Incurrence of catastrophic costs was independently associated with being the household’s primary income earner or being unemployed. Revision and expansion of strategies to mitigate TB-related catastrophic costs, in particular avoiding unemployment and income loss, are urgently required.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2023 11:39
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2023 11:39


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