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Influence of larval growth and habitat shading on retreatment frequencies of biolarvicides against malaria vectors

Msugupakulya, Betwel, Ngajuma, Swedi K., Ngayambwa, Athuman N., Kidwanga, Baraka E., Mpasuka, Ibrahim R., Selvaraj, Prashanth, Wilson, Anne ORCID: and Okumu, Fredros O. (2024) 'Influence of larval growth and habitat shading on retreatment frequencies of biolarvicides against malaria vectors'. Scientific Reports, Vol 14, Issue 1, e1002.

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Effective larviciding for malaria control requires detailed studies of larvicide efficacies, aquatic habitat characteristics, and life history traits of target vectors. Mosquitoes with brief larval phases present narrower timeframes for biolarvicidal effects than mosquitoes with extended periods. We evaluated two biolarvicides, VectoBac (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)) and VectoMax (Bti and Bacillus sphaericus) against Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in shaded and unshaded habitats; and explored how larval development might influence retreatment intervals. These tests were done in semi-natural habitats using field-collected larvae, with untreated habitats as controls. Additionally, larval development was assessed in semi-natural and natural habitats in rural Tanzania, by sampling daily and recording larval developmental stages. Both biolarvicides reduced larval densities of both species by >98% within 72 h. Efficacy lasted one week in sun-exposed habitats but remained >50% for two weeks in shaded habitats. An. funestus spent up to two weeks before pupating (13.2(10.4–16.0) days in semi-natural; 10.0(6.6–13.5) in natural habitats), while An. arabiensis required slightly over one week (8.2 (5.8–10.6) days in semi-natural; 8.3 (5.0–11.6) in natural habitats). The findings suggest that weekly larviciding, which is essential for An.arabiensis might be more effective for An. funestus whose prolonged aquatic growth allows for repeated exposures. Additionally, the longer residual effect of biolarvicides in shaded habitats indicates they may require less frequent treatments compared to sun-exposed areas.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2024 16:19
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2024 16:19


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