LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

Outbreak of Diarrhea Caused by a Novel Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype During British Military Training in Kenya

Toriro, Romeo ORCID:, Pallett, Scott, Woolley, Stephen, Bennett, Charlie, Hale, Isra, Heylings, Jennifer, Wilkins, Daniel, Connelly, Thomas, Muia, Kennedy, Avery, Patrick, Stuart, Andrew, Morgan, Laura, Davies, Mark, Nevin, William, Quantick, Oliver, Robinson, Guy, Elwin, Kristin, Chalmers, Rachel, Burns, Daniel, Beeching, Nicholas ORCID:, Fletcher, Tom and O’Shea, Matthew (2024) 'Outbreak of Diarrhea Caused by a Novel Cryptosporidium hominis Subtype During British Military Training in Kenya'. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Vol 11, Issue 1, ofae001.

ofae001.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (549kB) | Preview


Background: We report clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features of a large diarrhea outbreak caused by a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype during British military training in Kenya between February and April 2022.
Methods: Data were collated from diarrhea cases, and fecal samples were analyzed on site using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) BioFire FilmArray. Water was tested using Colilert kits (IDEXX, UK). DNA was extracted from feces for molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium A135, Lib13, ssu rRNA, and gp60 genes.
Results: One hundred seventy-two of 1200 (14.3%) personnel at risk developed diarrhea over 69 days. One hundred six primary fecal samples were tested, and 63/106 (59.4%; 95% CI, 0.49%–0.69%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Thirty-eight had Cryptosporidium spp. alone, and 25 had Cryptosporidium spp. with ≥1 other pathogen. A further 27/106 (25.5%; 95% CI, 0.18%–0.35%) had non-Cryptosporidium pathogens only, and 16/106 (15.1%; 95% CI, 0.09%–0.23%) were negative. C. hominis was detected in 58/63 (92.1%) Cryptosporidium spp.–positive primary samples, but the others were not genotypable. Twenty-seven C. hominis specimens were subtypable; 1 was gp60 subtype IeA11G3T3, and 26 were an unusual subtype, ImA13G1 (GenBank accession OP699729), supporting epidemiological evidence suggesting a point source outbreak from contaminated swimming water. Diarrhea persisted for a mean (SD) of 7.6 (4.6) days in Cryptosporidium spp. cases compared with 2.3 (0.9) days in non-Cryptosporidium cases (P = .001).
Conclusions: Real-time multiplex PCR fecal testing was vital in managing this large cryptosporidiosis outbreak. The etiology of a rare C. hominis gp60 subtype emphasizes the need for more genotypic surveillance to identify widening host and geographic ranges of novel C. hominis subtypes.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 450 General Works
WA Public Health > WA 20.5 Research (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 730 Coccidiosis
WI Digestive System > WI 407 Diarrhea
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2024 15:17
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2024 15:17


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item