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Extensive permethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from eastern and central Sudan

Himeidan, Yousif E., Muzamil, Hamid, Jones, Christopher ORCID: and Ranson, Hilary ORCID: (2011) 'Extensive permethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from eastern and central Sudan'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 4, e154.

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The distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been dramatically scaled up in eastern and
central Sudan. Resistance to insecticides has already been reported in this region and there is an urgent need to
develop appropriate resistance management strategies, which requires detailed information on the extent and causes of resistance. This study assessed resistance to permethrin and DDT in seven populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Sudan.


Three out of the seven populations were defined as resistant to permethrin and five of six populations
resistant to DDT according to WHO criteria. The 1014F kdr allele was present in all six populations tested and the
presence of this allele was significantly correlated with resistance to permethrin (P = 0.0460). While homozygous
1014F individuals were statistically not more likely to survive (53.7%) permethrin than to be killed (38.6%) by the
diagnostic dose, there was no difference in the likelihood of permethrin survival in heterozygotes (P = 0.7973). The
susceptible genotypes were more likely to be killed by permethrin exposure than to survive (P = 0.0460). The
1014F allele failed to confer a survival advantage to the WHO diagnostic dose of DDT in either the homozygous or
heterozygous state. The 1014S allele was not detected in any of the populations tested.


The kdr allele is certainly contributing to the extensive resistance to permethrin and DDT in Sudan but the high number of DDT (43%) and permethrin (16.7%) survivors that did not contain either kdr alleles suggests that other resistance mechanisms are also present in these populations. The high frequency of permethrin resistance throughout central and eastern Sudan is a cause of great concern for malaria control activities.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Vector Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Users 183 not found.
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2012 11:12
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2022 11:09


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