LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

Development of a Simple Dipstick Assay for Operational Monitoring of DDT

Ismail, Hanafy ORCID:, Kumar, Vijay, Singh, Rudra P., Williams, Chris, Shivam, Pushkar, Ghosh, Ayan, Deb, Rinki, Foster, Geraldine ORCID:, Hemingway, Janet ORCID:, Coleman, Michael ORCID:, Coleman, Marlize, Das, Pradeep and Paine, Mark ORCID: (2016) 'Development of a Simple Dipstick Assay for Operational Monitoring of DDT'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 10, Issue 1, e0004324.

Development of a Simple Dipstick Assay for Operational Monitoring of DDT.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview



Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of DDT is used to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. However, the quality of spraying is severely compromised by a lack of affordable field assays to monitor target doses of insecticide. Our aim was to develop a simple DDT insecticide quantification kit (IQK) for monitoring DDT levels in an operational setting.

Methodology/ principle findings

DDT quantification was based on the stoichiometric release of chloride from DDT by alkaline hydrolysis and detection of the released ion using Quantab chloride detection strips. The assay was specific for insecticidal p,p`-DDT (LoQ = 0.082 g/m2). Bostik discs were effective in post spray wall sampling, extracting 25–70% of active ingredient depending on surface. Residual DDT was sampled from walls in Bihar state in India using Bostik adhesive discs and DDT concentrations (g p,p`-DDT/m2) were determined using IQK and HPLC (n = 1964 field samples). Analysis of 161 Bostik samples (pooled sample pairs) by IQK and HPLC produced excellent correlation (R2 = 0.96; Bland-Altman bias = −0.0038). IQK analysis of the remaining field samples matched HPLC data in identifying households that had been under sprayed, in range or over sprayed.


A simple dipstick assay has been developed for monitoring DDT spraying that gives comparable results to HPLC. By making laboratory-based analysis of DDT dosing accessible to field operatives, routine monitoring of DDT levels can be promoted in low- and middle- income countries to maximise the effectiveness of IRS.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: DDT; High performance liquid chromatography; Chlorides; Insecticides; Adhesives; Heptanes; Colorimetric assays; Leishmaniasis
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 715 Visceral leishmaniasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2016 14:39
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2021 10:35


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item