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The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: Implementation of Remote Source Data Verification

Weston, William, Smedley, James, Bennett, Andrew and Mortimer, Kevin ORCID: (2016) 'The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: Implementation of Remote Source Data Verification'. PLoS ONE, Vol 11, Issue 6, e0155966.

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Source data verification (SDV) is a data monitoring procedure which compares the original records with the Case Report Form (CRF). Traditionally, on-site SDV relies on monitors making multiples visits to study sites requiring extensive resources. The Cooking And Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a 24- month village-level cluster randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an advanced cook-stove intervention in preventing pneumonia in children under five in rural Malawi ( CAPS used smartphones to capture digital images of the original records on an electronic CRF (eCRF). In the present study, descriptive statistics are used to report the experience of electronic data capture with remote SDV in a challenging research setting in rural Malawi.

At three monthly intervals, fieldworkers, who were employed by CAPS, captured pneumonia data from the original records onto the eCRF. Fieldworkers also captured digital images of the original records. Once Internet connectivity was available, the data captured on the eCRF and the digital images of the original records were uploaded to a web-based SDV application. This enabled SDV to be conducted remotely from the UK. We conducted SDV of the pneumonia data (occurrence, severity, and clinical indicators) recorded in the eCRF with the data in the digital images of the original records.

664 episodes of pneumonia were recorded after 6 months of follow-up. Of these 664 episodes, 611 (92%) had a finding of pneumonia in the original records. All digital images of the original records were clear and legible.

Electronic data capture using eCRFs on mobile technology is feasible in rural Malawi. Capturing digital images of the original records in the field allows remote SDV to be conducted efficiently and securely without requiring additional field visits. We recommend these approaches in similar settings, especially those with health endpoints.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: W General Medicine. Health Professions > W 83 Telemedicine (General)
WA Public Health > Air pollution > WA 754 Pollution and pollutants (incl. tobacco pollution; passive smoking)
WA Public Health > Statistics. Surveys > WA 950 Theory or methods of medical statistics. Epidemiologic methods
WC Communicable Diseases > Infection. Bacterial Infections > Bacterial Infections > WC 202 Pneumonia (General or not elsewhere classified)
WS Pediatrics > Diseases of Children and Adolescents > By System > WS 280 Respiratory system
WS Pediatrics > By Age Groups > WS 440 Preschool child
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Jessica Jones
Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2016 15:44
Last Modified: 12 Sep 2019 13:07


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