LSTM Home > LSTM Research > LSTM Online Archive

The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka

Kasturiratne, Anuradhani, Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam, Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha, Jayamanne, Shaluka F., Dawson, Andrew, Isbister, Geoff K., de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka and Lalloo, David ORCID: (2017) 'The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 11, Issue 7, e0005647.

Plos_NTD_11_7_e0005647.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (299kB) | Preview



Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka.


Data from a representative nation-wide community based household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally, and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires. Health system costs were obtained from hospital cost accounting systems and estimates of antivenom usage. DALYs lost to snakebite were estimated using standard approaches using disability weights for poisoning.


79% of victims suffered economic loss following a snakebite with a median out of pocket expenditure of $11.82 (IQR 2–28.57) and a median estimated loss of income of $28.57 and $33.21 for those in employment or self-employment, respectively. Family members also lost income to help care for patients. Estimated health system costs for Sri Lanka were $ 10,260,652 annually. The annual estimated total number of DALYS was 11,101 to 15,076 per year for envenoming following snakebite.


Snakebite places a considerable economic burden on the households of victims in Sri Lanka, despite a health system which is accessible and free at the point of care. The disability burden is also considerable, similar to that of meningitis or dengue, although the relatively low case fatality rate and limited physical sequelae following bites by Sri Lankan snakes means that this burden may be less than in countries on the African continent.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Animal Poisons > WD 410 Reptiles
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 19 Jul 2017 14:03
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:15


View details

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item