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Beyond menstrual hygiene: addressing vaginal bleeding throughout the life course in low and middle-income countries.

Sommer, Marni, Phillips-Howard, Penelope ORCID:, Mahon, Therese, Zients, Sasha, Jones, Meredith and Caruso, Bethany A (2017) 'Beyond menstrual hygiene: addressing vaginal bleeding throughout the life course in low and middle-income countries.'. BMJ Global Health, Vol 2, Issue 2, e000405.

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Girls and women experience numerous types of vaginal bleeding. These include healthy reproductive processes, such as menstruation and bleeding after childbirth, but also bleeding related to health conditions, such as fibroids or cancer. In most societies, the management of menstruation is handled covertly, something girls are often instructed about at menarche. The management of other vaginal bleeding is often similarly discreet, although behaviours are not well documented. In many societies, cultural taboos frequently hinder open discussion around vaginal bleeding, restricting information and early access to healthcare. Additionally, the limited availability of clean, accessible water and sanitation facilities in many low and middle-income countries augments the challenges girls and women face in conducting daily activities while managing vaginal bleeding, including participating in school or work, going to the market or fetching water. This paper aims to highlight the key vaginal bleeding experiences throughout a woman's life course and the intersection of these bleeding experiences with their access to adequate water and sanitation facilities, information and education sources, and supplies. The aim is to address the silence around girls and women's vaginal bleeding and their related social, physical and clinical management needs across the life course; and highlight critical gaps that require attention in research, practice and policy around this neglected topic of health and gender equality.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 309 Women's health
WA Public Health > WA 4 Works on general hygiene
WP Gynecology > Anatomy. Diseases. Injuries > WP 400 General works
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 03 Jan 2018 16:59
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2019 14:16


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