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Economic evaluation of short treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Ethiopia and South Africa: the STREAM trial

Madan, Jason J, Rosu, Laura, Tefera, Mamo Girma, van Rensburg, Craig, Evans, Denise, Langley, Ivor ORCID:, Tomeny, Ewan ORCID:, Nunn, Andrew, Phillips, Patrick PJ, Rusen, I.D and Squire, Bertie ORCID: (2020) 'Economic evaluation of short treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Ethiopia and South Africa: the STREAM trial'. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol 98, Issue 5, pp. 306-314.

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STREAM was a phase-III non-inferiority randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a shortened regimen for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and included the first-ever within-trial economic evaluation of such regimens, reported here.

We compared the costs of ‘Long’ (20-22 months) and ‘Short’ (9-11 months) regimens in Ethiopia and South Africa. Cost data were collected from trial participants, and health system costs estimated using ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ costing approaches. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with the trial primary outcome as the measure of effectiveness, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to illustrate decision uncertainty.

The Short-regimen reduced healthcare costs per case by 21% in South Africa (US$8,341 Long vs US$6,619 Short) and 25% in Ethiopia (US$6,097 Long vs US$4,552 Short). The largest component of this saving was medication in South Africa (67%) and social support in Ethiopia (35%). In Ethiopia, participants on the Short-regimen reported reductions in dietary supplementation expenditure (US$225 per case (95%CI 133-297)), and greater productivity (667 additional hours worked, 95%CI 193– 1127). Patient cost savings also arose from fewer visits to health facilities (Ethiopia US$13 (95%CI 11-14), South Africa US$64 (95%CI 50-77) per case). The probability of cost-effectiveness was >95% when favourable outcomes were valued at <US$19,000 (Ethiopia) or <US$14,500 (South Africa).

The Short-regimen provided substantial health system cost savings and reduced financial burden on participants. Shorter regimens are likely to be cost-effective in most settings, and an effective strategy to support the WHO goal of eliminating catastrophic costs in TB

Item Type: Article
Subjects: W General Medicine. Health Professions > W 74 Medical economics. Health care costs
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Julie Franco
Date Deposited: 30 Mar 2020 15:14
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2020 12:31


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