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Delivering ‘tiny targets’ in a remote region of southern Chad: a cost analysis of tsetse control in the Mandoul sleeping sickness focus

Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste, Courtin, Fabrice, Mahamat, Mahamat Hisséne, Chérif, Mahamat, Yoni, Wilfrid, Gadjibet, Nadmba MO, Peka, Mallaye, Solano, Philippe, Torr, Steve ORCID: and Shaw, Alexandra (2020) 'Delivering ‘tiny targets’ in a remote region of southern Chad: a cost analysis of tsetse control in the Mandoul sleeping sickness focus'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 13, p. 419.

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Background: Since 2012, the World Health Organisation and the countries affected by the Gambian form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) have been committed to eliminating the disease, primarily through active case-finding and treatment. To interrupt transmission of T. b. gambiense and move more rapidly towards elimination, it was decided to add vector control using ‘tiny targets’. Chad’s Mandoul HAT focus extends over 840 km2, with a human population of 39 000 as well as 14 000 cattle and 2 000 pigs. Some 2 700 tiny targets were deployed annually from 2014 onwards.
Methods: A protocol was developed for the routine collection of tsetse control costs during all field missions. This was implemented throughout 2015 and 2016, and combined with the recorded costs of the preliminary survey and sensitisation activities. The objective was to calculate the full costs at local prices in Chad. Costs were adjusted to remove research components and to ensure that items outside the project budget lines were included, such as administrative overheads and a share of staff salaries.
Results: Targets were deployed at about 60 per linear km of riverine tsetse habitat. The average annual cost of the operation was USD 56 113, working out at USD 66.8 per km2 protected and USD 1.4 per person protected. Of this, 12.8% was an annual share of the initial tsetse survey, 40.6% for regular tsetse monitoring undertaken three times a year, 36.8% for target deployment and checking and 9.8% for sensitisation of local populations. Targets accounted for 8.3% of the cost, and the cost of delivering a target was USD 19.0 per target deployed.
Conclusions: This study has confirmed that tiny targets provide a consistently low cost option for controlling tsetse in gambiense HAT foci. Although the study area is remote with a tsetse habitat characterised by wide river marshes, the costs were similar to those of tiny target work in Uganda, with some differences, in particular a higher cost per target delivered. As was the case in Uganda, the cost was between a quarter and a third that of historical target operations using full size targets or traps.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 4 General works
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 505 Diptera
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 705 Trypanosomiasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2020 13:15
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2020 13:15


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