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Investigating the molecular basis of multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) from Akaka-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Atoyebi, Seun M., Tchigossou, Genevieve M., Akoton, Romaric, Riveron, Jacob ORCID:, Irving, Helen, Weedall, Gareth ORCID:, Tossou, Eric, Djegbe, Innocent, Oyewole, Isaac O., Bakare, Adekunle A., Wondji, Charles ORCID: and Djouaka, Rousseau (2020) 'Investigating the molecular basis of multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) from Akaka-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 13, Issue 423.

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Understanding the mechanisms used by Anopheles mosquitoes to survive insecticide exposure is key to manage existing insecticide resistance and develop more suitable insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions as well as other alternative integrated tools. To this regard, the molecular basis of permethrin, DDT and dieldrin resistance in Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) at Akaka-Remo was investigated.

Bioassays were conducted on 3–5-day-old adult An. funestus (s.s.) mosquitoes for permethrin, DDT and dieldrin susceptibility test. The molecular mechanisms of mosquito resistance to these insecticides were investigated using microarray and reverse transcriptase PCR techniques. The voltage-gated sodium channel region of mosquitoes was also screened for the presence of knockdown resistance mutations (kdr west and east) by sequencing method.

Anopheles funestus (s.s.) population was resistant to permethrin (mortality rate of 68%), DDT (mortality rate of 10%) and dieldrin (mortality rate of 8%) insecticides. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses revealed the overexpression of glutathione S-transferase genes, cytochrome P450s, esterase, trypsin and cuticle proteins in resistant mosquitoes compared to control. The GSTe2 was the most upregulated detoxification gene in permethrin-resistant (FC = 44.89), DDT-resistant (FC = 57.39) and dieldrin-resistant (FC = 41.10) mosquitoes compared to control population (FC = 22.34). The cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b was also upregulated in both permethrin- and DDT-resistant mosquitoes. The digestive enzyme, trypsin (hydrolytic processes) and the cuticle proteins (inducing cuticle thickening leading to reduced insecticides penetration) also showed high involvement in insecticide resistance, through their overexpression in resistant mosquitoes compared to control. The kdr east and west were absent in all mosquitoes analysed, suggesting their non-involvement in the observed mosquito resistance.

The upregulation of metabolic genes, especially the GSTe2 and trypsin, as well as the cuticle proteins is driving insecticide resistance of An. funestus (s.s.) population. However, additional molecular analyses, including functional metabolic assays of these genes as well as screening for a possible higher cuticular hydrocarbon and lipid contents, and increased procuticle thickness in resistant mosquitoes are needed to further describe their distinct roles in mosquito resistance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > QX 4 General works
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 05 Nov 2020 11:39
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2020 11:39


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