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Antibody and antigen prevalence as indicators of ongoing transmission or elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: a modelling study

Coffeng, Luc E., Le Rutte, Epke A., Munoz, Johanna, Adams, Emily ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0816-2835 and de Vlas, Sake J. (2021) 'Antibody and antigen prevalence as indicators of ongoing transmission or elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: a modelling study'. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Issue ciab210. (In Press)

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Abstract

Background:
Control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent has been highly successful. Hopefully, control efforts such as indoor residual spraying and active case detection can be scaled down or even halted over the coming years. We explore how after scale-down, potential recurrence of VL cases may be predicted based on population-based surveys of antibody or antigenaemia prevalence.
Methods:
Using a stochastic age-structured transmission model of VL, we predicted trends in case incidence and biomarker prevalence over time after scaling down control efforts when the target of three successive years without VL cases has been achieved. Next, we correlated biomarker prevalence with the occurrence of new VL cases within 10 years of scale-down.
Results:
Occurrence of at least one new VL case was highly correlated with the seroprevalence and antigenaemia prevalence at the moment of scale-down, or one or two years afterwards. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that biomarker prevalence in adults provided the most predictive information, and seroprevalence was a more informative predictor of new VL cases than antigenaemia prevalence. Thresholds for biomarker prevalence to predict occurrence of new VL cases with high certainty were robust to variation in pre-control endemicity.
Discussion:
The risk of recrudescence of VL after scaling down control efforts can be monitored and mitigated by means of population-based surveys. Our findings highlight that rapid point-of-care diagnostic tools to assess (preferably) seroprevalence or (otherwise) antigenaemia in the general population could be a key ingredient of sustainable VL control.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 570 Serology.
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 573 Antigens
QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 70 Mastigophora. (e.g., Giardia. Trichomonas. Trypanosoma. Leishmania)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 715 Visceral leishmaniasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab210
Depositing User: Cathy Waldron
Date Deposited: 10 May 2021 14:11
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2021 10:25
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/17490

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