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The cytochrome P450 CYP325A is a major driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Central Africa

Wamba, Amelie N.R., Ibrahim, SulaimanSadi, Kusimo, Michael O, Muhammad, Abdullahi, Mugenzi, Leon M.J., Irving, Helen, Wondji, Murielle, Hearn, Jack ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3358-4949, Bigoga, Jude and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2021) 'The cytochrome P450 CYP325A is a major driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Central Africa'. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol 138, p. 103647.

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Abstract

The overexpression and overactivity of key cytochrome P450s (CYP450) genes are major drivers of metabolic resistance to insecticides in African malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus s.s. Previous RNAseq-based transcription analyses revealed elevated expression of CYP325A specific to Central African populations but its role in conferring resistance has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, RT-qPCR consistently confirmed that CYP325A is highly over-expressed in pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus from Cameroon, compared with a control strain and insecticide-unexposed mosquitoes. A synergist bioassay with PBO significantly recovered susceptibility for permethrin and deltamethrin indicating P450-based metabolic resistance. Analyses of the coding sequence of CYP325A Africa-wide detected high-levels of polymorphism, but with no predominant alleles selected by pyrethroid resistance. Geographical amino acid changes were detected notably in Cameroon. In silico homology modelling and molecular docking simulations predicted that CYP325A binds and metabolises type I and type II pyrethroids. Heterologous expression of recombinant CYP325A and metabolic assays confirmed that the most-common Cameroonian haplotype metabolises both type I and type II pyrethroids with depletion rate twice that the of the DR Congo haplotype. Analysis of the 1 kb putative promoter of CYP325A revealed reduced diversity in resistant mosquitoes compared to susceptible ones, suggesting a potential selective sweep in this region. The establishment of CYP325A as a pyrethroid resistance metabolising gene further explains pyrethroid resistance in Central African populations of An. funestus. Our work will facilitate future efforts to detect the causative resistance markers in the promoter region of CYP325A to design field applicable DNA-based diagnostic tools.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2021.103647
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 01 Nov 2021 12:39
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2021 12:39
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/19313

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