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Biochemical profiling of functionally expressed CYP6P9 variants of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus with special reference to cytochrome b5 and its role in pyrethroid and coumarin substrate metabolism

Nolden, Melanie, Paine, Mark ORCID: and Nauen, Ralf (2022) 'Biochemical profiling of functionally expressed CYP6P9 variants of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus with special reference to cytochrome b5 and its role in pyrethroid and coumarin substrate metabolism'. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol 182, e105051.

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Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are well studied enzymes catalyzing the oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics in insects including mosquitoes. Their duplication and upregulation in agricultural and public health pests such as anopheline mosquitoes often leads to an enhanced metabolism of insecticides which confers resistance. In the laboratory strain Anopheles funestus FUMOZ-R the duplicated P450s CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b are highly upregulated and proven to confer pyrethroid resistance. Microsomal P450 activity is regulated by NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) required for electron transfer, whereas the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 (CYB5) on insect P450 activity is less clear. In previous studies CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b were recombinantly expressed in tandem with An. gambiae CPR using E. coli-expression systems and CYB5 added to the reaction mix to enhance activity. However, the precise role of CYB5 on substrate turn-over when combined with CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b remains poorly investigated, thus one objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap. In contrast to the CYP6P9 variants, the expression levels of both CYB5 and CPR were not upregulated in the pyrethroid resistant FUMOZ-R strain when compared to the susceptible FANG strain, suggesting no immediate regulatory role of these genes in pyrethroid resistance in FUMOZ-R. Here, for the first time we recombinantly expressed CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b from An. funestus in a baculovirus expression system using High-5 insect cells. Co-expression of each enzyme with CPR from either An. gambiae or An. funestus did not reveal noteworthy differences in catalytic capacity. Whereas the co-expression of An. funestus CYB5 – tested at different multiplicity of infection (MOI) ratios – resulted in a significantly higher metabolization of coumarin substrates as measured by fluorescence assays. This was confirmed by Michaelis-Menten kinetics using the most active substrate, 7-benzyloxymethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BOMFC). We observed a similar increase in coumarin substrate turnover by adding human CYB5 to the reaction mix. Finally, we compared by UPLC-MS/MS analysis the depletion rate of deltamethrin and the formation of 4’OH-deltamethrin by recombinantly expressed CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b with and without CYB5 and detected no difference in the extent of deltamethrin metabolism. Our results suggest that co-expression (or addition) of CYB5 with CYP6P9 variants, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, can significantly enhance their metabolic capacity to oxidize coumarins, but not deltamethrin.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Enzymes > QU 135 Enzymes
QU Biochemistry > Cells and Genetics > QU 300 General works
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2022 12:55
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2023 15:11


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