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Commercial Antivenoms Exert Broad Paraspecific Immunological Binding and In Vitro Inhibition of Medically Important Bothrops Pit Viper Venoms

Alsolaiss, Jaffar, Alomran, Nessrin ORCID:, Hawkins, Laura and Casewell, Nicholas ORCID: (2022) 'Commercial Antivenoms Exert Broad Paraspecific Immunological Binding and In Vitro Inhibition of Medically Important Bothrops Pit Viper Venoms'. Toxins, Vol 15, Issue 1, e1.

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Snakebite envenoming is a life threatening neglected tropical disease that represents a considerable public health concern in the tropics. Viperid snakes of the genus Bothrops are among those of greatest medical importance in Latin America, and they frequently cause severe systemic haemotoxicity and local tissue destructive effects in human victims. Although snakebite antivenoms can be effective therapeutics, their efficacy is undermined by venom toxin variation among snake species. In this study we investigated the extent of paraspecific venom cross-reactivity exhibited by three distinct anti-Bothrops antivenoms (Soro antibotrópico-crotálico, BothroFav and PoliVal-ICP) against seven different Bothrops pit viper venoms from across Latin America. We applied a range of in vitro assays to assess the immunological binding and recognition of venom toxins by the antivenoms and their inhibitory activities against specific venom functionalities. Our findings demonstrated that, despite some variations, the monovalent antivenom BothroFav and the polyvalent antivenoms Soro antibotrópico-crotálico and PoliVap-ICP exhibited extensive immunological recognition of the distinct toxins found in the different Bothrops venoms, with Soro antibotrópico-crotálico generally outperformed by the other two products. In vitro functional assays revealed outcomes largely consistent with the immunological binding data, with PoliVap-ICP and BothroFav exhibiting the greatest inhibitory potencies against procoagulant and fibrinogen-depleting venom activities, though Soro antibotrópico-crotálico exhibited potent inhibition of venom metalloproteinase activities. Overall, our findings demonstrate broad levels of antivenom paraspecificity, with in vitro immunological binding and functional inhibition often highly comparable between venoms used to manufacture the antivenoms and those from related species, even in the case of the monovalent antivenom BothroFav. Our findings suggest that the current clinical utility of these antivenoms could possibly be expanded to other parts of Latin America that currently suffer from a lack of specific snakebite therapies.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Toxicology > General Toxicology > QV 601 Antidotes and other therapeutic measures
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 630 Toxins. Antitoxins
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Animal Poisons > WD 410 Reptiles
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2023 14:32
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2023 11:44


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