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Long‐term exercise preserves pancreatic islet structure and β‐cell mass through attenuation of islet inflammation and fibrosis

Carvalho, Vladmir H. C., Wang, Qianqian, Xu, Xiaohan, Liu, Lijie, Jiang, Weixin, Wang, Xiaohang, Wang, Jinbang, Li, Wei, Chen, Juan, Li, Tingting, Chen, Yang, Zhu, Wenwen, Sun, Zilin and Qiu, Shanhu (2023) 'Long‐term exercise preserves pancreatic islet structure and β‐cell mass through attenuation of islet inflammation and fibrosis'. The FASEB Journal, Vol 37, Issue 3, e22822.

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Islet fibrosis is associated with the disruption of islet structure and contributes to β-cell dysfunction, playing an essential role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Physical exercise has been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various organs; however, the effect of exercise on islet fibrosis has not been defined. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal diet sedentary [N-Sed], normal diet + exercise [N-Ex], high-fat diet sedentary [H-Sed], and high-fat diet + exercise [H-Ex]. After 60 weeks of exercise, 4452 islets from Masson-stained slides were analyzed. Exercise led to a 68% and 45% reduction in islet fibrosis in the normal and high-fat diet groups and was correlated with a lower serum blood glucose. Fibrotic islets were characterized by irregular shapes and substantial loss of β-cell mass, which were significantly reduced in the exercise groups. Remarkably, the islets from exercised rats at week 60 were morphologically comparable to those of sedentary rats at 26 weeks. In addition, the protein and RNA levels of collagen and fibronectin, and the protein levels of hydroxyproline in the islets were also attenuated by exercise. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in inflammatory markers in the circulation Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)] and pancreas [IL-1β, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Transforming Growth Factor-β, and Phosphorylated Nuclear Factor Kappa-B p65 subunit], lower macrophage infiltration, and stellate cell activation in the islets of exercised rats. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that long-term exercise preserves pancreatic islet structure and β-cell mass through anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions, suggesting additional rationales for the success of exercise training in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes that should be further explored.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WI Digestive System > WI 20 Research (General)
WK Endocrine System > WK 810 Diabetes mellitus
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI):
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2023 11:57
Last Modified: 21 Mar 2023 13:39


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